Comparison of the effects of whole milk, skim milk and apple juice at breakfast on appetite and energy intake in obese children


This three-way randomized crossover clinical trial has evaluated the effects of daily consumption of 240 mL of either skim millk or whole milk or apple juice during 2 consecutive breakfast among 50  children with obesity (10-12 years) on satiety and energy intake at lunch.

The energy intake was not different between skim millk, apple juice and whole milk periods (adjusted mean of energy intake: skim millk = 831.27 +/- 30.64 Kcal, apple juice = 794.92 +/- 28.72 Kcal, whole milk = 798.87 +/- 24.09 Kcal; p = 0.56). The effect was the same for either gender. Children reported higher satiety score 4 h after drinking whole milk with breakfast compared with skim millk (p < 0.05). The same association was found only in girls. Furthermore, skim millk significantly reduced appetite compared to apple juice, 2 h after preloads in girls (p < 0.05).

In conclusion full-fat milk may have favorable effects on satiety but not energy intake in subsequent meal compared to skim milk or apple juice among the children with obesity.

Kavezade S, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Aflatoonian M, Asemi M, Mehrabani S, Salehi-Abargouei A. The effects of whole milk compared to skim milk and apple juice consumption in breakfast on appetite and energy intake in obese children: a three-way randomized crossover clinical trial. BMC Nutr. 2018;4:44. Published 2018 Dec 10. doi:10.1186/s40795-018-0253-8

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