A preprint article reports that melatonin exposure after intubation in patients with positive diagnosis to COVID-19 is statistically associated with a positive outcomes (Ramlall et al., 2020).
Following these results, another recent article tried to summarize the potential effect of melatonin on RNA viral infections, including COVID-19 (DiNicolantonio et al., 2021).
Mechanisms are quite complex, but melatonin may boost virally mediated induction of type 1 interferons, but also enhance their antiviral efficacy. In addition, melatonin may have anti-inflammatory effects, which may be useful for the management of the inflammatory cascade observed in case of COVID-19 infection.
Therefore, melatonin, such as zinc and vitamin D, may be proposed for nutraceutical products targeting RNA viral infections.
DiNicolantonio JJ, McCarty M, Barroso-Aranda J. Melatonin may decrease risk for and aid treatment of COVID-19 and other RNA viral infections. Open Heart. 2021 Mar;8(1):e001568.Ramlall V, Zucker J, Tatonetti N. Melatonin is significantly associated with survival of intubated COVID-19 patients. medRxiv [Preprint]. 2020 Oct 18:2020.10.15.20213546