# Ingredient Status Description
1010 Aronia melanocarpa authorized EN: black chokeberry||Aronia melanocarpa belongs to the Rosaceae family. The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa are not considered novel.
969 Canarium ovatum forbidden The request concerns the use of nut/kernel found within the fruit of the pili nut tree Canarium ovatum. The history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, pili nuts are considered novel foods
967 Castanea mollissima Blume forbidden EN: Chinese chesnut||The request concerns the fruit of Castanea mollissima Blume, which is considered as novel food, as it was not used for human consumption to a significant degree within the EU before 15 May 1997.
992 Coprinus comatus forbidden The request concerns the use of Coprinus comatus dehydrated mycelium powder. The request was submitted to the Spanish authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Coprinus comatus dehydrated mycelium powder is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Coprinus comatus dehydrated mycelium powder
968 Epimedium brevicornum Maxim forbidden The request concerns the use of extracts of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim leaves in foods including food supplements
962 Epimedium sagitattum forbidden It belongs to the family Berberidaceae
938 Rubus glaucus forbidden Andean raspberry, mora de castilla (EN); ostružiník (CZ)||Rubus glaucus is a perennial semi-erect climbing shrub, belonging to the rose family . It consists of several round and spiny stems that form the corona of the plant, 1 to 2 cm in diameter, and can grow up to 3 m. The leaves are trifoliate with serrated edges, dark green and white beam beneath. Both stems and leaves are covered by a white powder. The fruit is an ellipsoid compound drupe of 15 to 25 mm at its widest diameter, weighing 3-5 grams, green when formed, becoming red when ripe and then dark and bright purple.
986 Bulbine natalensis forbidden Bulbine natalensis (Baker) (syn Bulbine latifolia (L.f.) Spreng) belongs to the family,Asphodelaceae. It is locally known as ibhucu (Zulu), rooiwortel (Afrikaans). It is considered a novel food
978 Celastrus orbiculatus forbidden The request concerns the use of fruit of Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. The request was submitted to the Estonian authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, fruits of Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. are considered novel foods.The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Chrysanthemum morifolium
937 Chenopodium pallidicaule forbidden Kaniwa, cañihua (EN); merlik bledy (CZ)||Chenopodium pallidicaule is an Andean cereal with a high nutritional value, containing twice as much protein as foods such as wheat, rice and oats. It is native of the Peruvian Altiplano and is produced mainly in the Puno region to the north of Lake Titicaca.
1019 Euryale ferox forbidden EN: Fox nut, gorgon nut, makhana||Euryale ferox Salisb. is an aquatic crop belonging to the family of Nympheaceae. The request concerns the use of Euryale ferox seeds. It is considered a novel food.
946 Ilex guayusa forbidden Species native to Ecuador and distant relative to Mate (Ilex paraguariensis). A tall evergreen tree native to the upper Amazonian regions of Ecuador, northeastern Peru, and southwestern Colombia, belonging to the Aquifoliaceae Family. The request concerns all parts of the tree.
1006 Myrtus communis food_supplement EN: Myrtle, DE: Myrte, FR: Myrte, IT: Mirto||The request concerns the use of leaves of Myrtus communis which are considered not novel in food supplements. Essential oil from leaves and flowers are not novel.
989 Phalaris canariensis authorized EN: Canary grass||Phalaris canariensis L. belongs to the family Poaceae. The request concerns the grain of Phalaris canariensis L. which is considered not novel.
1003 Solanum lycopersicum forbidden The request concerns the use of tomato oleoresin extract of dry yellow tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) (Lumenato 10%). The request was submitted to the Irish authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, tomato oleoresin extract of dry yellow tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) (Lumenato 10%) is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry tomato oleoresin extract of dry yellow tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) (Lumenato 10%)||The request concerns the use of tomato oleoresin extract of dry yellow tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) (Lumenato 10%). The request was submitted to the Irish authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, tomato oleoresin extract of dry yellow tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) (Lumenato 10%) is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry tomato oleoresin extract of dry yellow tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) (Lumenato 10%)
912 3, 3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) forbidden The request concerns only the synthetic form of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM). DIM is the primary metabolite of Indole3 Carbinol (I3C), a compound found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, radishes and turnips.
988 4-hydroxy isoleucine forbidden 4-hydroxy isoleucine is an L-isoleucine derivative. It is considered a novel food
1036 5-hydroxytryptophan forbidden 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is considered novel in food.
660 Abelmoschus esculentus unknown see Hibiscus esculentus
864 Abies alba food_supplement EN: European silver fir, Silver fir, Whitewood, NL: Gewone zilverspar, Grote spar, Zilverspar, FR: Sapin pectiné, Sapin blanc, Sapin argenté, FI: Saksanpihta, DE: Weiß-Tanne, Abies pectinata||The extracts of the following parts (bark, branch, needle, seed and resin) of the plant are not considered novel in food supplement. Abies alba is a fir native to the mountains of Europe from the Pyrenees north to Normandy, east to the Alps and the Carpathians, and south to southern Italy and northern Serbia.
866 Abies balsamea food_supplement NL: Balsemspar, Canadabalsem, FR: Sapin baumier, EN: Balsam fir, Canadian balsam, DE: Balsam-Tanne, FI: Palsamipihta, Pinus balsamea||According to the information available (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements) only the use of following plant parts is authorized: leaf, bark. The balsam fir (Abies balsamea) is a North American fir, native to most of eastern and central Canada (Newfoundland west to central Alberta) and the northeastern United States (Minnesota east to Maine, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to West Virginia).
863 Abies pectinata unknown see Abies alba
880 Acacia arabica unknown see Acacia nilotica
881 Acacia nilotica food_supplement EN: Indian gum, Arabic tree, Babul, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acacia, Sant tree, Al-sant, FR: Acacia du Nil, DE: Arabische Akazie, Gummi-Akazie, FI: Akaasia, NL: Echte acacia, Gom-acacia||According to the information available (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements) only the use of following plant parts is authorized: fruit, bark, gum. Acacia nilotica (gum arabic tree, babul, Egyptian thorn, Sant tree, Al-sant or prickly acacia; called thorn mimosa in Australia; lekkerruikpeul or scented thorn in South Africa) is a species of Acacia (wattle) native to Africa and the Indian subcontinent.
933 Acacia rigidula forbidden Acacia rigidula is commonly known as Blackbrush Acacia.
21 Acacia senegal authorized NL: Arabische gom, FR: Gommier blanc, acacia Sénégal, DE: Verek-Akazie, Acacia verek, EN: Gum Acacia, Gum Arabic Tree, Gum Senegal Tree||In the EU gum arabic derived from the trunk and branch of Acacia senegal and closely related species as defined in the additives legislation (Directive 99/77/EC) is also used as food ingredient. Any other food uses of products derived from Acacia senegal require autorisation under the Novel Food Regulation. Acacia senegal is a small deciduous Acacia tree known by the common names Rfaudraksha, Gum Acacia, Gum Arabic Tree, or Gum Senegal Tree. It is native to semi-desert regions of Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as Oman, Pakistan, and northwestern India. It grows to a height of 5-12m, with a trunk up to 30 cm in diameter. A. senegal is the source of the world's highest quality gum arabic, known locally as hashab gum in contrast to the related, but inferior, gum arabic from A. seyal or talh gum.
22 Acacia sp. unknown Acacia Gum, gum Arabic||see Acacia senegal
867 Acacia verek unknown see Acacia senegal
20 Acanthopanax senticosus unknown see Eleutherococcus senticosus
641 Acca sellowiana authorized Feijoa, guayabapiña, guayaba, Guayabo del país (ES), Feijoa, pineapple guava, Brazilian guava (EN), Fejchoa Sellowova, aka (CZ), Feijoa (DK, FI, FR, GR, IT, NO, PT), Feijoa sellowiana, Feijoa, ananasguave (NL), Feijoa, Brasilianische Guave, Ananas-Guave (DE), Joðber (IS), Guajawa (PL)||The request concern the fruit or berry (juice) of feijoa. The plant is a bushy shrub 3 to 20 ft (0.9-6 m) or more in height with pale gray bark; the spreading branches swollen at the nodes and white-hairy when young. The fruit is oblong or ovoid or slightly pear-shaped, 1-1 1/2 to 2 1/2 in (4-6 cm) long and 1 1/8 to 2 in (2.8-5 cm) wide, with the persistent calyx segments adhering to the apex. The thin skin is coated with a "bloom" of fine whitish hairs until maturity, when it remains dull-green or yellow-green, sometimes with a red or orange blush. The fruit emits a strong long-lasting perfume, even before it is fully ripe. The thick, white, granular, watery flesh and the translucent central pulp enclosing the seeds are sweet or subacid, suggesting a combination of pineapple and guava or pineapple and strawberry in flavor. There are usually 20 to 40, occasionally as many as 100, very small, oblong seeds hardly noticeable when the fruit is eaten. The feijoa is native to extreme southern Brazil, northern Argentina, western Paraguay and Uruguay where it is common wild in the mountains. It belongs to tyhe plant family Myrtaceae.
661 Acer saccharum authorized Sugar maple (EN), Zaharen klen (BG), Sockerlönn (SE), Sukkerløn (DK), Suikeresdoorn (NL), Sokerivaahtera (FI), Érable à sucre (FR), Zuckerahorn (DE), Sykurhlynur (IS), Acero zuccherino (IT), Sukkerlønn (NO), Ácer sacarino (PT), Klon cukrowy (PT), Arce de azúcar (ES)||The information avaialble (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the sap from the sugar maple. Acer saccharum (Sugar maple) is a species of maple native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Ontario, and south to Georgia and Texas. It belongs to the plant family Aceraceae. Sugar maple is a deciduous tree normally reaching heights of 25–35 m tall, and exceptionally up to 45 m. A 10-year-old tree is typically about 5 m tall.
328 Acetyl L-carnitine authorized Alc, Alcar, karnitin (HU), acetylo-L-karnityna (PL), Acetil L-carnitina (PT), L-karnitin (SL), acetyl L-karnitin (CZ), Acetil L-karnitīns (LV), asetyyli L-karnitiini (FI), atsetüül-L-karnitiin (ET), Acetil L- carnitina (ES), Ακέτυλο L-καρνιτίνη (EL), Acetyl-L-carnitin (DE)||The primary source of carnitine is meat (red meat is the richest source). Less amounts are contained in fish, eggs, milk, cheese and poultry. Carnitine can be synthesised by the body from two essential aminoacids (lysine and methionine). Acetyl-L-carnitin (ALC) is an ester of the trimethylated amino acid, L-carnitine (important in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids) and is sythesized in the human brain, liver and kidney by the enzyme ALC-transferase.
868 Achillea millefolium food_supplement SE: Rölleka, FR: Achillée millefeuille, EN: Common Yarrow, FI: Siankärsämö, DE: Gemeine Schafgarbe, NL: Gewoon duizendblad||According to the information available (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements) only the use of following plant parts is authorized: aerial parts, flower. Achillea millefolium or yarrow is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Northern Hemisphere. In New Mexico and southern Colorado, it is called plumajillo, or "little feather", for the shape of the leaves. In antiquity, yarrow was known as herbal militaris, for its use in staunching the flow of blood from wounds. Other common names for this species include common yarrow, gordaldo, nosebleed plant, old man's pepper, devil's nettle, sanguinary, milfoil, soldier's woundwort, thousand-leaf (as its binomial name affirms), and thousand-seal.
810 Achras zapota unknown see Manilkara zapota
632 Actinidia arguta authorized aktinidie význačná; mini kiwi (CZ), kiwiberries (UK)||Actinidia arguta (hardy kiwi) is a perennial vine native to Japan, Korea, Northern China, and Russian Siberia. It produces a small fruit resembling the kiwifruit.
683 Actinidia chinensis unknown see Actinidia deliciosa
569 Actinidia deliciosa pending Actinidia chinensis Planch, Aktinidia (BG), Ægte Kiwi (DK), Almindelig Kiwi (DK), Kiwi (NL, IT, FR, DE, NO, PT, PL, ES, SE), Kiiviköynnös (FI), Actinidie de Chine (FR), Groseille de Chine (FR), Chinesische Stachelbeere (DE), Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa (A.Chev.) A.Chev., Kiwi fruit (EN), Actinidio (GR), Kíví (IS), Actínidea (PT), Chinese gooseberry (EN)||Kiwi fruit (botanically berry) has been used as food within the EU before 15 May 1997. However, the request concerns "kiwi seed oil". Actinidia deliciosa (syn. Actinidia chinensis deliciosa) or kiwifruit belongs to the plant family Actinidiaceae and is native to southern China, where it is declared as the National fruit of China. Other species of Actinidia are also found in China and range east to Japan and north into southeastern Siberia. This species grows naturally at altitudes between 600 - 2,000 m. Actinidia deliciosa is borne on a vigorous, woody, twining vine or climbing shrub reaching 9 m. Its leaves are alternate, long-petioled, deciduous, oval to nearly circular, cordate at the base, 7.5-12.5 cm long. Young leaves are coated with red hairs; mature leaves are dark-green and hairless on the upper surface, downy-white with prominent, light-colored veins beneath. The flowers are fragrant, dioecious or bisexual, borne singly or in 3's in the leaf axils, are 5- to 6-petalled, white at first, changing to buff-yellow, 2.5-5 cm broad, and both sexes have central tufts of many stamens though those of the female flowers with no viable pollen. The flowers also lack nectar. The oblong fruits are up to 6.25 cm long. The russet-brown skin of the fruits is densely covered with short, stiff brown hairs. The flesh is firm until fully ripen; it is glistening, juicy and luscious. The color of the flesh is bright-green, or sometimes yellow, brownish or off-white, except for the white, succulent center from which radiate many fine, pale lines. The flavor is subacid to quite acid; it is suggested that it is similar to the flavors of the gooseberry or strawberry.
26 Adhatoda vasica food_supplement Malabar nut tree (EN), malabarnoot (NL), poronnia (PL), Malabári dió fa (HU), Indisches Lungenkraut (DE), malarbarski oreh (SL), zdravilna justicia (SL), nesměna cévnatá vasaka (CZ), Indijas riekstkoks (LV), vasa (FI), vasika justiitsia (ET), malabarnød (DK)||Native to India, Adhatoda vasica also known as Justicia adhatoda, belongs to the Acanthaceae Family. It is a small evergreen shrub, which grows commonly in open plains, especially in the lower Himalayas (up to 1300 meters above sea level), India, Sri Lanka and Malaysia.Only the leaves, flowers and roots are known to be used in food supplements.
904 Aegopodium podagraria authorized EN: ground elder, herb gerard, bishop's weed, goutweed, snow-in-the-mountain, DE: Giersch, Geißfuß, Dreiblatt, Ziegenkraut, Ziegenfuß, Zipperleinskraut, Wiesenholler, FI: Vuohenputki , FR: Égopode podagraire, herbe aux goutteux, podagraire, petite angélique, herbe de saint Gérard, SE: Kirskål, skvallerkål, kärs||Aegopodium podagraria, commonly called ground elder, herb gerard, bishop's weed, goutweed, and snow-in-the-mountain, is a perennial plant in the carrot family (Apiaceae) that grows in shady places. It is the type species of the genus Aegopodium. Leaves of Aegopodium podagraria are not novel.
662 Aframomum melegueta authorized Meleguettapippuri (FI), Piperi melenketa (GR), Melegueta (IT), Aligator pepper, guinea grains (EN), Paradiskorn (DK, SE), Paridijskorrels (NL), Grains de paradis, maniguette (FR), Malagettapfeffer, Guineapfeffer, Paradieskörner, Malaguetapfeffer (DE), Meleguetta (IT), Dongos do Congo (malagueta) (PT), Ziamo rajskie, amomek (PL), Pimento de Guinea, granos de Guinea, pimenta melagueta (ES), Melegeta piper (BG)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the seeds (originates from a capsule) of Aframomum melegueta. There is a warning in the NETTOX Plant List: "Use of the plant may give rise to health concern". According to the same list Aframomum melegueta is also used as natural source for flavorings. Aframomum melegueta is a species in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. This spice commonly known as Grains of paradise, Melegueta pepper, alligator pepper, Guinea grains or Guinea pepper is obtained from the plant's ground seeds; it gives a pungent, peppery flavour.
1008 Agaricus bisporus (Selenium and Vitamin B12 mushroom) forbidden The request concerns the use of Selenium and Vitamin B12 mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). The request was submitted to the United Kingdom authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Selenium and Vitamin B12 mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) are considered novel foods. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Agaricus bisporus (Selenium and Vitamin B12 mushroom)
991 Agaricus blazei (dehydrated mycelium powder) forbidden The request concerns the use of Agaricus blazei dehydrated mycelium powder. The request was submitted to the Spanish authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Agaricus blazei dehydrated mycelium powder is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Agaricus blazei dehydrated mycelium powder
27 Agaricus blazei (mushroom) authorized Hime-matsutake, Almaond Portobella, amandel paddestoel (NL), pieczarka brazylijska (PL), Murill gomba (HU), Mandelpilz (DE), vrsta kukmaka (SL), žampion mandlový (CZ), Brazīlijas atmatene (LV), Champignion art (SE)||Mushroom originating from Brazil.
358 Agathosma betulina food_supplement Zápašnice březová (CZ), Buchu (EN, FI), Barosma betulina||The request concerns the use of leaves of Agathosma betulina (Buchu) in food supplements. Some countries may classify the plant as pharmaceutical. The leaf extract is considered to be novel food. Agathosma betulina (previously Barosma betulina) is a flowering plant in the family Rutaceae, native to the lower elevation mountains of western South Africa, where it occurs near streams in fynbos habitats.It is known by the common name round leaf buchu. The very similar plant Agathosma crenulata (previously Barosma crenulata) is known as the oval leaf buchu.
886 Agave salmiana pending The request concers the use of Agave salmiana in food supplements. Agave salmiana is a species of agave. It comes from Mexico. The variety A. salmiana var. ferox (K.Koch) Gentry is often encountered in cultivation. The epithet ferox is due to the hard and long (up to 8 cm) spines.
28 Agave sisalana authorized Agave rigida, Agavendicksaft (DE), Sisal (DE) (SL) (ES) (SE), agawa sizalowa (PL), Sisal (PT), szízal agave (HU), agáve sisalová (CZ), sizals (LV), sisalagaave (FI), sisaliagaav (ET), sisal (SE)||Belongs to the Agavaceae Family. The shrub originated in Central America and has been mainly cultivated for the production of (non-food) fibres. Only the fructose sirup was used as a food ingredient.Any other food uses of products derived from Agave sisalana require autorisation under the Novel Food Regulation.
29 Agave tequilana authorized Blue Agave (EN), tekiila-agaav (ET)||Blue Agave, the tequila agave of the Agave tequilana species is an agave that is an important economic product of Jalisco state in Mexico due to its role as the base ingredient of tequila, a popular alcoholic drink.Agave tequilana syrup is used as in food.
918 Agmatine (4-aminobutyl) guanidine sulfate forbidden Agmatine (4-aminobutyl) guanidine sulfate is the decarboxylation product of the amino acid arginine and is an intermediate in polyamine biosynthesis. It is considered a neurotransmitter; agmatine inhibits or inactivates nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and induces the release of some peptide hormones.
484 Ajuga reptans food_supplement EN: Carpet bugleweed, common bugleweed, blue bugle, bugleherb, bugleweed, carpetweed, common bugle, NL: Kruipend zenegroen, FR: Bugle rampante, DE: Kriechender Günsel||The used plant parts of Ajuga reptans are the flowering aerial parts. Carpet bugleweed or common bugleweed is a low growing evergreen perennial 6-10 in (15.2-25.4 cm) tall which forms a dense matlike groundcover as it spreads along underground stolons. As is typical of herbaceous plants in the mint family (Lamiaceae/Labiatae), bugleweed has square stems and opposite or whorled leaves. The basal leaves are dark green and oblong or spoon shaped, 3-5 in (7.6-12.7 cm) long and 1-2 in (2.5-5.1 cm) wide; stem leaves are a little smaller. The flowers (usually blue or purplish) are about 1/2 in (1.3 cm) long and borne in whorls on erect spikes 6-10 in (15.2-25.4 cm) tall. They are typical mint flowers: tubular with two unequal lips. Many cultivars have been selected for foliage or flower color. 'Alba' has white flowers. 'Rubra' has rosy red flowers. 'Pink Elf' has pink flowers and gets only about 2 in (5.1 cm) tall. 'Jungle Bronze' has bronze leaves and flower spikes to 10 in (25.4 cm) tall. 'Jungle Beauty' has unusually colorful foliage, consisting of purple leaves with red margins. 'Purple Brocade' has leaves variegated with purple. 'Multicolor' or 'Rainbow' has leaves variegated with cream and pink. 'Variegata' has gray green leaves variegated with cream. Carpet bugleweed is native to Europe, western Asia and Iran. It has escaped cultivation and become naturalized in some parts of the northeastern and northcentral U.S.
952 Alaria esculenta authorized EN: Bladderlocks, Daberlocks, Wing Kelp, Horsetail kelp , FR: Wakamé, DE: Essebarer Riementang , Irish: Láir||It is a seeweed along the coasts of the far north Atlantic Ocean. Plants with olive or yellow-brown fronds to 4 m long and 25 cm wide.
758 Albatrellus ovinus authorized Sheep polypore (EN), Lampaankääpä (FI), Fårticka (SE), Schafporling (DE), Polypore des brebis (FR), Трутовик овечий (RU), ニンギョウタケモドキ (JP)||The sheep polypore (Albatrellus ovinus) has an irregular shape and yellowish colour and may grow up to a diameter of about twenty centimetres. The underside of the cap is covered by a thin, dense pore layer that is not easily separated from the flesh. The stem is short, stout and bumpy. The flesh is firm and white. The flavour is mild. The sheep polypore grows in groups or clusters in coniferous forests, usually in mature spruce stands, often among moss.
31 Albizia julibrissin forbidden Seidenbaumblueten (DE), Persian Silk Tree, Pink Siris, Bastard Tamarind, Nemu tree, Mimosa. (EN)||The request concerns the use of flowers of Albizia julibrissin Durazz. The request was submitted to the Estonian authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established.Therefore, flowers of Albizia julibrissin Durazz are considered novel foods.The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Chrysanthemum morifolium
684 Allium fistulosum authorized Pijplook, Grove bieslook (NL), Tvurd luk (BG), Pibeløg (DK), Pillisipuli, talvisipuli (FI), Ciboule, Cive (FR), Winterzwiebel, Lauchzwiebel, Schlottenzwiebel (DE), Pípulaukur (IS), Cipolla giapponese (IT), Pipeløk (NO), Cebolinha comum (PT), Szczypiorek (PL), Cebollín, Cebolleta, cebollino inglés (ES), Piplök (SE), Welsh onion, Japanese bunching onion (EN)||The information avaialble (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the leaves, pseudostem and inflorences of the Allium fistulosum. According to the list it is also used as natural sources for flavourings. Allium fistulosum (Welsh onion, Japanese bunching onion) is a perennial onion that belongs to the plant family Liliaceae (Alliaceae). Other names that may be applied to this plant include green onion, spring onion, escallion, and salad onion. These names are ambiguous, as they may also be used to refer to any young green onion stalk, whether grown from Welsh onions, common bulb onions, or other similar members of the genus Allium. The species is very similar in taste and odor to the related bulb onion, Allium cepa, and hybrids between the two (tree onions) exist. The Welsh onion, however, does not develop bulbs, and possesses hollow leaves ("fistulosum" means "hollow") and scapes. Large varieties of the Welsh onion resemble the leek, such as the Japanese 'negi', whilst smaller varieties resemble chives. Many Welsh onions can multiply by forming perennial evergreen clumps. Next to culinary use, it is also grown in a bunch as an ornamental plant.
686 Allium ramosum unknown see Allium tuberosum
685 Allium tuberosum authorized Ciboulette chinoise (FR), Chinesischer Schnittlauch, Ästiger Lauch (DE), Snælaukur (IS), Aglio odoroso (IT), Kinagressløk (NO), Ceboleta chinesa (PT), Pajecznica galezista (PL), Cebollino chino (ES), Doftlök (SE), Allium tuberosum Spreng., Chinese chives (EN), Kitaiski luk (BG), Kinaløg (DK), Chinese bieslook (NL), Kiinansipuli, kiinanruoho-sipuli (FI)||The information avaialble (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the leaves of Allium tuberosum or Allium ramosum. According to the list it is also used as natural sources for flavourings. Garlic chives or Chinese chives (Allium tuberosum), is a vegetable related to onion. It belongs to the olant family Liliaceae (Alliaceae). The plant has a distinctive growth habit with strap-shaped leaves unlike either onion or garlic, and straight thin white-flowering stalks that are much taller than the leaves. The flavor is more like garlic than chives. It grows in slowly expanding perennial clumps, but also readily sprouts from seed. Besides its use as vegetable, it also has attractive flowers. Both leaves and the stalks of the flowers are used as a flavoring similarly to chives, green onions or garlic and are used as a stir fry ingredient. In China, they are often used to make dumplings with a combination of egg, shrimp and pork. They are a common ingredient in Chinese jiaozi dumplings and the Japanese and Korean equivalents. The flowers may also be used as a spice. In Vietnam, the leaves of garlic chives are cut up into short pieces and used as the only vegetable in a broth with sliced pork kidneys.
32 Aloe barbadensis unknown see Aloe ferox
1 Aloe ferox authorized Cape Aloe (EN), Kaapse Aloi (NL), Aloë (NL), aloes kolczasty (PL), aloe (PT), Cap-Aloe (HU), Kap-Aloe (DE), Aloja (SL), aloe kapská (CZ), Savvalas alveja (LV), piikkialoe (FI), torkav aaloe (ET), Aloe (ES), Αλόη η θηριώδης (EL), Aloe vera (DE), kapaleo (DK), blåaloe (SE)||Arborescent perennial shrub (belonging to the Liliaceae Family). Native to southern and eastern Africa, the parts of the plant used are the leaves from which a yellow bitter juice and a gel can be obtained. "Aloe" is defined in the WHO monograph on selected medicinal plants as the dried juice of the leaves of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. or of A.ferox Mill. And its hybrids with A.africana Mill. And A. spicata Baker (Liliaceae).The juice should not be confused with the gel. Its content of "Aloin"poses a safety concern, therefore specific rules may be applicable.
805 Aloysia citrodora unknown see Lippia triphylla
329 Alpha-Ketoglutarate Calcium food_supplement α-κετογλουταρικό ασβέστιο (EL), alfa-ketoglutaran wapnia (PL), alfa-cetoglutarato cálcio (PT), kalcium-alfa-ketoglutarát (HU), Calcium-alpha-Ketoglutarat (DE), kaleijev alfa-ketoglutarat (SL), alfa-ketoglutarát calcium (CZ), Kalcija alfa ketoglutarāts (LV), alfa-ketoglutaraattikalsium (FI), kaltsium-alfa-ketoglutaraat (ET), Alfa-cetoglutarato cálcico (ES)||Glutamine and glutamate with proline, histidine, arginine and ornithine, constitute the ´´glutamate family´´ of amino acids. Glutamine via glutamate is converted to alpha-ketoglutarate, an integral component of the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle). Together with other intermediates of the Krebs cycle (i.e. citrate, fumarate, malate and succinate) these organic acids are for energy production.
1009 Alpha–hydroxy-isocaproic Acid food_supplement Alpha–hydroxy-isocaproic Acid (HICA)
687 Alpinia galanga authorized Blue ginger, Thai ginger, Laos (ID), Langkwas, Galanga root, Amomum galanga, Greater galangal (EN), Stor Galanga (DK), Galangal, grote galantwortel (NL), Galangajuuri (FI), Galanga de l’Inde (FR), Großer Galgant (DE), Stórgalangal (IS), Galanga (IT, ES), Galanga-da-malásia (PT), Galanga duza (PL), Languas galanga, Thai galangal, Stor galangarot (SE)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the rhizome of Alpinia galanga. Alpinia galanga (also Amomum galanga) is a plant in the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). It is an herb used in cooking, especially in Indonesian cuisine and Thai cuisine. It is one of four plants known as galangal, and is differentiated from the others with the common name greater galangal (or simply Thai galangal). A. galanga is the most common form of galangal used in cooking. The plant grows from rhizomes in clumps of stiff stalks up to two meters in height with abundant long leaves which bears red fruit. It is native to South Asia and Indonesia. It is cultivated in Malaysia, Laos, and Thailand. The robust rhizome has a sharp, sweet taste and smells like a blend of black pepper and pine needles.
2 Alpinia speciosa pending Shellflower, Dwarf cardamom (EN), roosa kalganirohi (ET)||The request concerns only the use of the leaves. The flowers of Alpinia speciosa have a porcelain look, are shell-like and bloom prolifically on a 30-cm stalk. The flower´s single fertile stamen has a massive anther. The globose white stigma of the pistil extends beyond the tip of the anther. The foliage of Alpinia nutans is evergreen in areas that do not have a hard freeze. It has a very distinctive cardamom fragrance when brushed or rubbed, but this is NOT the plant that produces the spice by that name.
3 Althaea officinalis food_supplement Marshmallow (EN), Echte heemst (NL), Witte malve/maluw (NL), prawoślaz lekarski (PL), Alteia (PT), mavavaísco (PT), orvosi zilíz (HU), Eibisch (DE), navadni slez (SL), proskurník lékařský (CZ), Ārstniecības alteja (LV), rohtosalkoruusu (FI), harilik altee (ET), Malvavisco (ES), Αλθαία (EL), läkemalva (SE)||Althaea officinalis belongs to a genus of 6-12 species of perennial herbs, belonging to the Malvaceae Family. They are found on the banks of rivers and in salt marshes, preferring moist, sandy soils.
4 Amaranthus caudatus authorized prince’s feather (EN), red amaranth (EN), amaranth étalée, queue de renard (FR), hualtli, bledo, kattenstaartamarant (NL), szarłat zwisły (PL), moncos-de-peru (PT), bókoló amaránt (HU), Kiwicha (DE), laskavec ocasatý (CZ), punarevonhäntä (FI), longus rebashein (ET), rævehaleamarant (DK), Astainais amarants (LV), rävsvans (SE)||Native from South America, the plant belongs to the Amaranthaceae Family. It extends from Ecuador to northern Argentina, growing in temperate areas and inter-Andean valleys. The plant is an annual of 0.4 to 3m.As food only the use of kernels/grains from the plant is known in the EU.
5 Amaranthus cruentus authorized graanamarant (NL), szarłat krwisty (PL), sárga disznóparéj (HU), Rispenfuchsschwanz, Körneramaranth (DE), vresta seira (SL), laskavec červenoklasý (CZ), puppurarevonhäntä (FI), verev rebashein (ET), rød amarant (DK), Skarainais amarants (LV), blodamarant (SE)||Belongs to the Amaranthaceae Family. The species is widely distributed in North America, Central America and South American Andes, where also the greatest genetic diversity is found.As food only the use of kernels/grains from the plant is known in the EU.
6 Amaranthus edulis unknown see Amaranthus hypocondriacus
7 Amaranthus flavus unknown see Amaranthus cruentus
8 Amaranthus hypocondriacus authorized Inca wheat (EN), szarłat jadalny (PL), disznóparéj-féle (HU), Körneramaranth (DE), vresta seira (SL), laskavec krvavý (CZ), Amarants (LV), amarantti (FI), tume rebashein (ET), pletamarant (DK), toppamarant (SE), Bredo-vermelho (PT)||Amaranths belong to the Amaranthaceae Family. The species is widely distributed in North America, Central America and South American Andes, where also the greatest genetic diversity is found.
9 Amaranthus leucocarpus unknown see Amaranthus cruentus
10 Amaranthus mantegacianus unknown see Amaranthus hypocondriacus
11 Amaranthus paniculatus unknown see Amaranthus caudatus
955 Ambrosia artemisiifolia forbidden Ragweed||It is an annual plant that emerges in late spring. It is an alien species that have been reported in Europe
12 Amelanchier alnifolia authorized Saskatoon berry (EN), marjatuomipihlaja (FI), krentenboompje (NL), świdośliwa zachodnia (PL), fanyarka (HU), Felsenbirne (DE), plod hrusice (SL), muchovník olšolistý (CZ), Saskatūna (LV), lepalehine toompihlakas (ET), ellebladet bærmispel (DK), Bärhäggmispel (SE)||The Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) belongs to the Rosaceae Family. (Other fruits belonging to this Familly include apples, pears, prunes, cherries, apricots, strawberries and blackberries.) It is a small purple fruit of a shrub found in North America, particularly in the north west of Canada.
13 Amomum compactum unknown see Alpinia speciosa
689 Amomum galanga unknown see Alpinia galanga
14 Andrographis paniculata food_supplement Kariyat, justicie (NL), brodziuszka wiechowata (PL), andrográfisz (HU), Andrographiskraut (DE), vrasta justicije (SL), měkýn latnatý (CZ), Androgrape (LV), rohtokirata (FI), karyyat, andrographis (DK)||Plant belonging to the Acanthaceae Family and mostly cultivated in China.
708 Angelica archangelica authorized Angelica, Garden Angelica, Holy Ghost, Wild Celery, Norwegian angelica (EN), Grote Engelwortel, engelwortel (NL), Väinönputki (FI), Echter Engelwurz (DE), Angélica, hierba del Espíritu Santo (ES), Blag buz (BG), Fjeldkvan (DK), Archangélique, angélique vraie, Saint-esprit, angélique (FR), Agelici (GR), Ætihvönn (IS), Fjellkvann, Kvann (NO), Angélica dos jardins, angélica da Boémia, erva do Espirito Santo (PT), Dziegiel lesny (PO), Fjällkvanne (SE), Archangelica officinalis||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant list) concerns the food use of leaves, petiole and stem of Angelica archangelica. In addition for food supplement use fruits, rhizome and roots are authorized (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). According to the EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Angelica archangelica, commonly known as Garden Angelica, Holy Ghost, Wild Celery, and Norwegian angelica, is a biennial plant from the Apiaceae family, formerly known as Umbelleferae. Synonyms include Archangelica officinalis Hoffm., and Archangelica officinalis var. himalaica C.B.Clarke). Angelica archangelica grows wild in Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Greenland, the Faroe Islands and Iceland, mostly in the northern parts of the countries. It is cultivated in France, mainly in the Marais Poitevin, a marsh region close to Niort in the départment Deux-Sèvres. It also grows in certain regions in Germany like the Harz mountains, and in certain regions of Romania, like the Rodna mountains.
15 Angelica dahurica pending Callisace dahurica (CZ)||A deciduous perennial that grows to 2.0 meters (6.6 feet) high by 0.5 meters (1.65 feet) wide and prefers many types of soil with a pH ranging from acid to alkaline and partial to full sun with moderate moisture. This plant withstands frost and is self fertile and has hermaphrodite flowers and is pollinated by insects. Habitat: E. Asia - Japan, Korea, Siberia. Damp habitats in mountains.
16 Angelica pubescens pending Angelica chloupkata (CZ)||A deciduous perennial that grows to 2.0 meters (6.6 feet) high by 0.5 meters (1.65 feet) wide and prefers many types of soil with a pH ranging from acid to alkaline and partial to full sun with moderate moisture. This plant withstands frost and is self fertile and has hermaphrodite flowers and is pollinated by insects. Habitat: E. Asia - Japan Damp habitats in hills and low mountains.
17 Angelica sinensis food_supplement Dong quai, female ginseng (EN), dzięgiel chiński (PL), kínai angyalgyökér (HU), chinesische Angelikawurzel (DE), kitajski gozdni koren (SL), chinese engelwortem (NL), andělika čínská (CZ), Ķīnas zirdzene (LV), kiinan angelika, kiinan karhunputki (FI), hiina heinputk (ET), kvanne-art (SE)||Perennial herb (Apiaceae Family) native to China, Korea and Japan.
18 Aniba canelilla forbidden Casca preciosa, rosewood (EN), pau-rosa, bois de rose (FR), aniba (PL), Rosenholz (DE), babérrózsafa (HU), Rožkoks (LV), rosenträd (SE)||Belongs to the Lauraceae Family and is native to amazonian region. This evergreen tree has a reddish bark and yellow flowers.
775 Annona cherimola authorized Cherimoya, custard-apple, chirimoyo, momona, kelemoio (EN), Chérimolier, chérimole, chérimoyer, chérimolier du Pérou, corossol du Pérou (FR), Cherimoya (DK, NL, NO), Annoona, kirimoija (FI), Morgunberkja (IS), Flaszowiec siatkowaty (PL), Kirimoja (SE), Cherimoya, Cremfrucht, cherimolia, cherimoyabaum, Chirimoya, Chirimoyabaum, Jamaika-Apfel (DE), Anoneira, cherimola, anona, atemóia, cherimóia, anona-do-Chile, anona-da-Madeira (PT), Chirimoyo, anón, chirimorrinón, chirimoya, chirimoya del Perú (ES), チェリモア, チェリモヤ (JP), Annona, annone, cirimoia, cerimolia (IT), Аннона шеримоя, Черимоя, Черимойя (RU), Anona (BG)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the fruit (botanically berry, pseudocarp)of Annona cherimola. Annona cherimola (cherimoya), and originally called Chirimuya by the Inca people who lived where it was growing in the Andes of South America, is an edible fruit bearing species of the genus Annona from the family Annonaceae is now widely cultivated mostly for its sweet fruits that share the name Custard-apple with others in its family. Annona cherimola is a fairly dense, fast-growing, woody, briefly deciduous but mostly evergreen low branched, spreading tree or shrub 5 metres (16 ft) to 9 metres (30 ft) tall. Large green conical or heart-shaped compound fruit, 10 centimetres (3.9 in) to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long, and diameters of 5 centimetres (2.0 in) to 5 centimetres (2.0 in), with skin that gives the appearance of having overlapping scales or knobby warts. Ripening to brown with a fissured surface from winter into spring; weighing on the average 150 grams (5.3 oz) to 500 grams (18 oz) but extra large specimens may weigh 2.7 kilograms (6.0 lb) or more. The ripened flesh is creamy white and contains numerous hard, inedible, brown or black, beanlike, glossy seeds, 1 centimetre (0.39 in) to 2 centimetres (0.79 in) long and about half as wide. Widely cultivated now, Annona cherimola started life in the Andes at altitudes of 700 metres (2,300 ft) to 2,400 metres (7,900 ft) where it was spread to the Caribbean. From there it was taken by Europeans to various parts of the tropics. Unlike other Annona species A. cherimola has not successfully naturalized in West Africa, and the Australasians have misidentified Annona glabra as this species.
777 Annona muricata forbidden cachiman épineux, corossol épineux, anone muriquee, anone, caichemantier, coeur de boeuf (FR), Sirsak (ID), Zuurzak (NL), Sape-sape, coração da India, coraçãode-preto, graviola, jaca-do-Pará, ata, araticum-grande (PT), Mãng cầu Xiêm, mãng cầu gai (VN), 刺果番荔枝 (CN), Pigget Annona (DK), Annoona (FI), Cachiman épineux, corossol épineux (FR), Nónberkja (IS), Piggannona (NO), Flaszowiec miekkociernisty (PL), Taggannona (SE), Soursop, Brazilian pawpaw, prickly custard apple, Soursapi (EN), Guanábano, guanábana, anona, catche, catoche, catuche, zapote agrio (ES), Stachelannone, Sauersack, anona, flashendaum, stachel anone, stachliger (DE), Sarifa, seremaia (FJ), Sanalapa, sasalapa, sasalapa (WS), Graviola (IT)||The request concerns the leaves of Annona muricata. The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the fruit (botanically berry, pseudocarp), including juice and pulp, of Annona muricata. Annona muricata (soursop) is a member of the family of Custard apple trees called Annonaceae and a species of the genus Annona. Annona muricata produces edible fruits that are usually called Soursop due to the slightly acidic taste when ripe. A. muricata trees grew natively in the Caribbean and Central America but are now widely cultivated. It is a small, upright, evergreen that can grow to about 4 metres (13 ft) tall and cannot stand frost. Dark green, prickly (or bristled) fruits are egg-shaped and can be up to 30 centimetres (12 in) long, with a moderately firm texture. Flesh is juicy, acid, whitish and aromatic. The fruits of Annona muricata (including juice and pulp) are not novel
778 Annona reticulata authorized Bullock’s heart, custard-apple, wild-sweetsop, ox-heart (EN), Netannona (DK), Coeur de boeuf, anone reticulée (FR), Netzannone, Ochsenherz (DE), Kvöldberkja (IS), Annona colorata (IT), Nettannona (NO), Fruta-do-conde, nona, coral-de-boi (PT), Flaszowiec (PL), Corazón de buey, mamón, anona corazón (ES), Nätannona (SE), Annoona (FI), Custardappel (NL)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the fruit (botanically berry, pseudocarp) of Annona reticulata. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Annona reticulata is a small deciduous or semi-evergreen tree in the plant family Annonaceae. It is best known for its fruit, called custard-apple, a name it shares with fruits of other species from the same genus: A. cherimola and A. squamosa or sometimes it is called wild-sweetsop, bullock's-heart, or ox-heart. The flavor of the fruit is sweet and pleasant, but less popular than that of A. cherimola. It is a small deciduous or semi-evergreen tree reaching 8 metres (26 ft) to 10 metres (33 ft) tall with an open, irregular crown. The fruit is variable in shape: heart-shaped or spherical. The size ranges from 7 centimetres (2.8 in) to 1 centimetre (0.39 in), depending on the cultivar. When ripe, the fruit is brown or yellowish, with red highlights and a varying degree of reticulation, depending again on the variety. The flesh varies from juicy and very aromatic to hard with a repulsive taste. Possibly a native of the Caribbean and Central America, Annona reticulata is now pantropical and can be found growing between altitudes of 0 metres (0 ft) to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) in areas of Central America that have alternating seasons. Cultivated and naturalized in many parts of the world including Southeast Asia, Taiwan, India, Australia, and West Africa.
779 Annona squamosa authorized Seremiya, Seremaia, Heremaia (FJ), Annone écailleuse, pomme-cannelle, Cachiman cannelle, Pomme cannelle (FR), バンレイシ (JP), น้อยหน่า (TH), Søtannona (NO), Na (in the North), mãng cầu (in the South) (VN), Sød Annona (DK), Annoona (FI), Sólberkja (IS), Sockerannona (SE), 番荔枝 (CN), Zoetzak, Kaneelappel (NL), Custard apple, sugar apple, sweetsop (EN), Süßsack, Schuppenannone, Zuckerapfel, Rahmapfel (DE), Srikaya, serikaya, buah nona (ID), Ateira, fruta-pinha, fruta-conde, ata, guanabana, Atá, fruta-do-conde, pinha, Cabeça-de-negro (PT), Кремовое яблоко (RU), Annona (IT)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the fruit (botanically berry, pseudocarp) of Annona squamosa. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Annona squamosa a small well-branched tree or shrub that bears edible fruits called sugar-apple, species of the genus Annona and member of the family Annonaceae more willing to grow at lower altitudes than its relatives Annona reticulata and Annona cherimola (whose fruits often share the same name) making it the most widely cultivated of these species. Annona squamosa is a small, semi-(or late) deciduous, much branched shrub or small tree 3 metres (9.8 ft) to 8 metres (26 ft) tall very similar to soursop (Annona muricata) with a broad, open crown or irregularly spreading branches and a short trunk short, not buttressed at base. The fruit of A. squamosa has delicious whitish pulp, and is popular in tropical markets. Aggregate and soft fruits form from the numerous and loosely united pistils of a flower which become enlarged and mature into fruits which are distinct from fruits of other species of genus (and more like a giant raspberry instead). The round or heart-shaped greenish yellow, ripened aggregate fruit is pendulous on a thickened stalk; 5 centimetres (2.0 in) to 10 centimetres (3.9 in) in diameter with many round protuberances and covered with a powdery bloom. Fruits are formed of loosely cohering or almost free carpels (the ripened pistels). The pulp is white tinged yellow, edible and sweetly aromatic. Each carpel containing an oblong, shiny and smooth, dark brown to black, 1.3 centimetres (0.51 in) to 1.6 centimetres (0.63 in) long seed. Annona squamosa is willing to grow at altitudes of 0 metres (0 ft) to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) and does well in hot dry climates; at much lower altitudes than many of the other fruit bearers in its family.
671 Antennaria dioica authorized Katzenpfötchen (DE), Kissankäpälä (FI), Ahokissankäpälä (FI), Cudweed, Stoloniferous Pussytoes, Mountain everlasting (EN), Catsfoot (EN)||The request concerns the flowers of Antennaria dioica. Antennaria dioica (Mountain Everlasting, Catsfoot, Cudweed or Stoloniferous Pussytoes) is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae. It is found in cool temperate regions of Europe and Asia, and also in North America in Alaska only. It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 10–20 cm tall, with a rosette of basal spoon-shaped leaves 4 cm long, and 1 cm broad at their broadest near the apex; and smaller leaves arranged spirally up the flowering stems. The flowers are produced in capitulae (flowerheads) 6–12 mm diameter with pale pink ray florets and darker pink disc florets.
710 Anthemis nobilis unknown see Chamaemelum nobile
19 Aphanizomenon flosaquae var. flosaquae authorized Alga Klamath, Super Blue Green BluegreenAFA (EN), aphamanizomenon-flos-aquae sinilevä (FI), Blaugrüne Alge (DE), niitjas sinivetikas (ET), sinice (CZ), kékzöld alga (HU), Zilaļģu suga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (LV), klamatska alga (SL)||This cyanobacterium belonging to the genus Aphanizomenon is a variety of the species Aphanizomenon flosaquae. The filamentous blue-green algae species are harvested each summer from Klamath Lake in Oregon (USA), the only source of AFA in the world. In particular, it is harvested when two successive blooms appear from May to early June and from the end of August to the end of October.
41 Apis mellifera forbidden hunajamehiläinen (FI) Bienengift (DE), meemesilane (ET), včela medonosná, včelí jed (CZ), méhméreg (HU), Bišu inde (LV), čebelji strup (SL), Pszczola miodna (jad) (PL), bi (SE)||The request concerned only the use of bee venom in food.Without prejudice to other bee products and other uses of bee venom, history of use as a food of Bee venom is not known to any Member State. Therefore, bee venom, if it were to be used as a food requires a safety assessment before it may be placed on the market in the EU as a food.
1015 Aqueous extract of olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) containing at least 10% hydroxytyrosol forbidden This is a food subject to a request to Spain submitted pursuant to the requirements of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/456 on the procedural steps of the consultation process for determination of novel food status. The outcome of the request is publicly available on this website under the consultation process (https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en) and in the novel food catalogue (https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/catalogue_en). The Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition have concluded that this food ingredient is novel.
331 Arabinogalactan food_supplement Arabinogalactano (PT) (ES), arabinogalaktan (PL) (CZ), arabinogalaktaani (FI), Arabinogalaktan (DE), arabinogalaktaan (ET), arabino-galaktán (HU), αραβινο-γαλακτάνη (EL), arabinogalactan (DK), Arabīnogalaktāns (LV), arabino galaktan (SL)||Arabinogalactan is a polysaccharide derived from the wood of the larch tree (Larix species). It is a highly branched polysaccharide consisting of a galactan backbone with side-chains of galactose and arabinose sugars. Arabinogalactans are found in a variety of plants but are more abundant in the Larix genus, primarily Larix occidentalis (Western Larch).
576 Arbutus unedo authorized Strawberry tree, Irish strawberry tree, Killarney strawberry tree (EN), Planika, Kumarka (BG), Almindelig Jordbærtræ (DK), Aardbeiboom (NL), Lännenmansikkapuu (FI), Arbousier commun, arbouse (FR), Erdbeerbaum (DE), Kumaro (GR), Jarðarberjatré (IS), Jordbærtre (NO), Ervedeiro, medronheiro, êvodo, êrvedo (PT), Drzewo truskawkowe (PO), Smultronträd (SE), Madroño, borrachin (ES), Fragola arborea, corbezzolo, sorbopuloso, albatro (IT)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant list) concerns the use of the fruits (berry, pseudocarp) of Arbutus unedo. According to the list it is used as natural source for flavourings. The Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.) is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the family Ericaceae, native to the Mediterranean region and western Europe north to western France and Ireland. Due to its presence in South West Ireland, it is also known as Irish strawberry tree, and Killarney strawberry tree. Despite its name, the strawberry tree does not produce strawberries. The Strawberry Tree grows to 5-10 m tall, rarely up to 15 m, with a trunk diameter of up to 80 cm. Zone: 7-10. The leaves are dark green and glossy, 5-10 cm long and 2-3 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The hermaphrodite flowers are white (rarely pale pink), bell-shaped, 4-6 mm diameter, produced panicles of 10-30 together in autumn. They are pollinated by bees. The fruit is a red aggregate drupe 1-2 cm diameter, sometimes called arbutus-berry, with a rough surface, maturing 12 months at the same time as the next flowering. The fruit is edible.
42 Arctium lappa food_supplement Burdock (EN), Bardana (PT), suur takjas (ET)||Edible burdock is a member of the Compositae family. Some of the other common names by which burdock is known are gobo (Japanese name), ngau pong (Chinese name), harlock, edible goberon, bourholm, eddick, flapper-bags, sticky buttons, beggar´s buttons, clot, clod, cockly, and hurr-burrs. Also, the plant´s burrs are called cuckolds, cuckles, cuckold´s buttons, and cuckoldy busses.There are two botanical species of burdock, A. lappa and A. minus. The one found growing wild throughout much of the United States is A. minus and is only slightly comparable to the cultivated A. lappa. Gobo (burdock) is a choice chinese vegetable.Although burdock grows wild and thrives throughout the United States, it is not native. It was introduced by the early settlers and was quickly adopted by the American Indians for their own gardens. These coarse perennial plants are weeds in many temperate areas. The tops die down in the winter. New sprouts arising from roots in spring are peeled and eaten raw or cooked. The dried roots from the first year´s growth and the seed are used medicinally. Cultivated gobo looks very much like the wild plant. It may grow to 8 feet under ideal conditions. The numerous purple flowers are small and comparatively inconspicuous. They quickly turn into burrs if allowed to go to seed. The roots can grow as long as 4 feet, and are slender and shaped like carrot and parsnip. Most of the time they grow about 24 inches long, and are brown with white flesh.
985 Areca catechu forbidden The request concerns the use of the nut, which is the seed of the fruit of the oriental palm Areca catechu . Areca nuts are also known as Betel nuts, Gua or Supari.The nuts are considered novel foods.
958 Aristotelia chilensis food_supplement Maqui, Chilean blackberry||It is a small tree from the Eleocarpaceae family. The request concerns Maqui berries (black round berry)which are considered not novel in food supplements.
1011 Armoracia rusticana authorized EN: Horseradish||Armoracia rusticana G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb is a perennial plant of the family Brassicaceae. The request concerns the use of Armoracia rusticana roots. It is not novel in food
977 Artemisia annua forbidden EN: Sweet wormwood , NL: Zomeralsem, zoete alsem , ES: Ajenjo dulce o ajenjo chino, FR: Armoise annuelle, DE: Einjähriger Beifuß||Artemisia annua L. is a plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. All parts of this plant and their extracts are considered as novel food.
45 Arthrospira platensis authorized Spirulina (DE) (SL), blue-green algae (EN), Espirulina (PT) (ES), spirulina (PL) (FI) (CZ), sini-rohevetikas (ET), spirulina alga (HU), σπιρουλίνα (EL), Spirulīna, zilaļģe (LV)||Spirulina is a blue-green microalga (cyanobacterium) which belongs to the Lichinaceae Family. Spirulina originates from Latin meaning spiral and its physical appearance resembles thin thread interlocking and twining together.
711 Artocarpus altilis authorized Hlebno darvo (BG), Drzewo chlebowe (PO), Arbol del pan, fruta de pan (ES), Brödfrukt (SE), Artocarpus communis, Breadfruit, breadnut (EN), Artocarpus incisa, Brødfrugt (DK), Broodboom (NL), Leipäpuu (FI), Arbre à pain (FR), Brotfrucht (DE), Brauðaldin (IS), Frutto del pane, albero del pane (IT), Brødfrukt (NO), Árvore-do-pão, fruta-pão (PT)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the fruits (sorosus) of Artocarpus altilis. Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry family, Moraceae, growing throughout Southeast Asia and most Pacific Ocean islands. Its name is derived from the texture of the cooked fruit, which has a potato-like flavor, similar to fresh-baked bread. Breadfruit is a staple food in many tropical regions. Breadfruit can be eaten once cooked, or can be further processed into a variety of other foods. A common product is a mixture of cooked or fermented breadfruit mash mixed with coconut milk and baked in banana leaves. Whole fruits can be cooked in an open fire, then cored and filled with other foods, such as coconut milk, sugar and butter, cooked meats, or other fruits. The filled fruit can be further cooked so the flavor of the filling permeates the flesh of the breadfruit.
712 Artocarpus communis unknown see Artocarpus altilis
715 Artocarpus heterophyllus authorized Artocarpus integrifolius, Raznolistno hlebno darvo (BG), Jackfrugt (DK), Nanka (NL), Leipäpuu (FI), Jacquier, jacques (FR), Jackfrucht (DE), Saðningaraldin (IS), Integrifoglio (IT), Jackfrukt (NO, SE), Jaqueira, jaca (PT), Drzewo bochenkowe (PO), Jackfruit (EN), Jaca, jaqueiro, árbol del pan (ES)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the fruits (sorosus) of Artocarpus heterophyllus. The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus or A. heterophylla) is a species of tree in the Artocarpus genus of the mulberry family (Moraceae). It is native to parts of Southern and Southeast Asia. It is the national fruit of Bangladesh, locally called Kathal. The jackfruit tree is believed to be indigenous to the southwestern rain forests of India. It is widely cultivated in tropical regions of the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia. Jackfruit is also found in East Africa, e.g., in Uganda and Mauritius, as well as throughout Brazil and Caribbean nations like Jamaica. It is well suited to tropical lowlands, and its fruit is the largest tree-born fruit, reaching 80 pounds (36 kg) in weight and up to 36 inches (90 cm) long and 20 inches (50 cm) in diameter. The flesh of the jackfruit is starchy, fibrous and is a source of dietary fiber. The flavour is similar to a tart banana. Jackfruit is commonly used in South and Southeast Asian cuisines. It can be eaten unripe (young) when cooked, or ripe uncooked. The seeds may be boiled or baked like beans. The leaves are used as a wrapping for steamed idlis.
713 Artocarpus incisa unknown see Artocarpus altilis
714 Artocarpus integrifolius unknown see Artocarpus heterophyllus
47 Ascophyllum laevigata unknown see Ascophyllum nodosum
48 Ascophyllum nodosum authorized rakkolevä, merilevä (FI), Knotentang, Sägetang (DE), hnědá mořská řasa, kelpa (CZ), Észak-atlanti kövialga (HU), buletang (DK), Jūraszāle (LV), vrsta alge (SL), Workoliść członowaty (PL), Knöltång (SE), Alga castanha (PT), põisadru (ET), Yellow Tang (EN)||It is a brown seaweed closely related to Fucus. It forms a single bladders centrally in long, strap-like fronds.
49 Asimina triloba authorized Papau, pawpaw (DK), dog banana, Indian banana, false-banana (EN), Papau-Pflanze (DE), söödav asimiina (ET), muďoul trojlaločný (CZ), anóna cserje (HU), Papaja (LV), Asima (SL), Urodlin trójłatkowy (PL)||Belongs to the Annonaceae Family. Native to north America. Pawpaw fruit have an oblong shape with green skin and a taste that can be described as a very sweet blend of banana, mango and pineapple flavours with a mild pleasant fruit aroma.
1018 Asparagus acutifolius L and Asparagus aphyllus L authorized PT: Espargos bravos||The information available concerns the use of stems of Asparagus acutifolius L. and Asparagus aphyllus L.. The Asparagus acutifolius L. and Asparagus aphyllus L. are perennials and lianóides plants, belonging to the plant family Asparagaceae. These two species are distinguished by their spines (cladodes). While species Asparagus acutifolius L. have cladode all the same size and relatively thin, usually grouped into fascicles 10 to 35 thorns, the cladodes of species Asparagus aphyllus L. are unequal, and normally the central of each fascicle is longer and thicker than the others, generally not more than 7 thorns per fascicle. Another feature of species Asparagus acutifolius L. is their winding stems with a tendency to climb. The food consumption of the Asparagus acutifolius L. and Asparagus aphyllus L. is verified over the years. The shoots, young stems still unbranched from underground rhizome, are confectioned with scrambled eggs or pork, in soups or salads, for example
50 Asparagus racemosus food_supplement Shatavari, chřest hroznovitý (CZ), fürtös spárga (HU), wilder Spargel, indischer Spargel (DE), Sparģeļi (LV), indijski beluš (SL), Sparag groniasty (PL), Sparris-art (SE)||Member of the Liliaceae Family. Only the use of the roots and their aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Asparagus racemosus in food supplements is known in the EU.
52 Aster tripolium authorized Sea aster (EN), Aster maritime (FR), Salz -, Aster-, Strandaster (DE) (SE), zeeaster (NL), meriasteri (FI), randaster (ET), hvězdnice slanistá (CZ), sziki őszirózsa (HU), αλμυρή μαργαρίτα (EL), Jūrmalas miķelīte, jūrmalas sālsastere (LV), obmorska nebina (SL), Aster sony (PL)||Salt-tolerant perennial plant of saltmarshes and cliffs belonging to the Compositeae Family. The plant resists to seawater concentration and/or grows on saline soils. It is normally consumed as vegetable in the very young stage. Leaves are fleshy and narrow and have a peculiar soft saline taste as they contain a lot of minerals (iron, calcium and other oligoelements) and proteins.
445 Astragalus membranaceus pending CZ: Kozinec blanitý, EN, NL: Astragalus, FR: Astragale||The roots of Astragalus membranaceus have been used in food supplements before 15 May 1997. However, the request concerns the root extract of Astragalus membranaceus. Astragalus Membranaceus is a perennial member of the flowering legume (pea) family. It is indigenous to the northern and eastern parts of China and Mongolia.
716 Atriplex hortensis authorized Orache, Garden Orache, Red Orach, Mountain Spinach, French Spinach, Arrach (EN), Gradinska loboda (BG), Have-Mælde (DK), Leputia, chrysolachano (GR), Garðahrímblaðka (IS), Atriplice degli orti (IT), Hagemelde (NO), Armolas, ervaarmoles (PT), Loboda ogrodowa (PO), Armuelle, bledos molles (ES), Atriplex acuminata, Gartenmelde, Spanischer Salat, Orache (DE), Trädgårdsmålla (SE), Tuinmelde (NL), Tarhamaltsa (FI), Arroche des jardins (FR)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant list) concerns the use of leaves of Atriplex hortensis. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Atriplex hortensis, also known as Garden Orache, Red Orach, Mountain Spinach, French Spinach, or simply "orache" or arrach, is a hardy, annual plant, with an erect, branching stem, varying in height from two to six feet, according to the variety and soil. The leaves are variously shaped, but somewhat oblong, comparatively thin in texture, and slightly acid to the taste, the flowers are small and obscure, greenish or reddish, corresponding in a degree with the color of the foliage of the plant; the seeds are small, black, and surrounded with a thin, pale-yellow membrane. They retain their vitality for three years. Atriplex hortensis belongs to the plant family Amaranthaceae (Chenopodiaceae).
718 Auricularia polytricha authorized Hirneola polytricha, Asian Judas ear, Cloud ear fungus (EN), Judino uho (BG), Filtet Judasøre (DK), Judasoor, muizenoortjes (NL), Ustasieni (FI), Hirnéole, oreille de Judas (FR), Judasohr, Ohrlappenpilz, Black Fungus (DE), Skógareyra (IS), Orelha de Judas (PT), Uszak gestowlosy (PO), Hongo negro (ES), Skogsöra (SE)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant list) concerns the use of the fruiting body of Auricularia polytricha. Auricularia polytricha (syn. Hirneola polytricha) is an edible jelly fungus that belongs to the plant family Auriculaceae. It is gray-brown in color, almost tasteless and often used in Asian cooking. It is usually sold dried and needs to be soaked before use.
55 Backhousia citriodora authorized lemon myrtle [EN], sidrun-lõhnamünt (ET)||Backhousia citriodora occurs naturally in the Queensland coastal forests from Brisbane to Mackay and is known by several vernacular names including Lemon Ironwood, Lemon-scented Myrtle and Sweet Verbena Tree. It is a medium-sized shrub or tree, to 8 m tall with a low-branching habit. Often in cultivation small branches take root where they touch the ground. These branches are easily severed and replanted.The leaves of B. citriodora are a fresh green colour and strongly lemon-scented. They are attractively veined and oval or lance-shaped in outline, 50 -100 mm long with slightly toothed margins and a pointed apex. The young foliage is reddish and the young shoots and undersides of the leaves are often hairy.
56 Bacopa monnieri food_supplement Baby tears, brhami, dwarf bacopa, herb of grace (EN), Wasserysop (DE), sasi-vesikaak (ET), bakopa drobnolistá (CZ), kislevelű bakopa (HU), Bakopa (LV), vrsta bakope (SL), Bakopa drobnolista (PL), litet tjockblad (SE)||Member of the Scrophulariacase Family, it is quite widespread throughout the tropics, where it can be found on the banks of slow flowing rivers and lakes.
57 Bactris balanoidea unknown see Bactris major
58 Bactris major forbidden cubaro, prickly palm (EN), kawmaka, pikkurasvalehti (FI), palma kokosová náplzák (CZ), nagy barackpálma (HU), Ērkšķu palma (LV), palma baktris (SL)||Native from coasts of Central America and North of South America, Bactris major needs a tropical climate. It is a small clustering palm to about 4m, with thin brown trunks, with spines at the nodes.
59 Bambusa sp. pending Bamboo (EN) (PT), bamboe (NL), Bambus (DE), bambus (PL) (ET) (CZ) (SL), bambu (FI), Bambu (SE), Bambú (ES), bambusz (HU), Μπαμπού (EL), Bambuss (LV)||Without prejudice to other uses of bamboo products, history of use as a food of bamboo leaves is not known to any Member State. Therefore, bamboo leaves, if they were to be used as a food might be subject to the Novel Food Regulation and require a safety assessment before the may be placed on the market in the EU as a food.
667 Barosma betulina unknown see Agathosma betulina
733 Basella alba authorized Oostindische spinazie (NL), Malabarinpinaatti (FI), Épinard de Malabar, baselle, brède d’Angola (FR), Indischer Spinat, Malabar-Spinat, Cylon-Spinat (DE), Malabarspínat, indverskt spínat (IS), Spinacio indiano (IT), Basella (NO), Bacela, bertalha, bredo de Angola (PT), Szpinak cejlonski (PL), Espinaca de Malabar, espinaca blanca (ES), Malabarspenat (SE), Malabarspinat (DK), Bacella rubra, Malabar spinach, Ceylon spinach, Indian spinach, Phooi leaf, Red vine spinach, Creeping spinach (EN)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the leaves of Basella alba. Basella alba, or Malabar spinach (also Phooi leaf, Red vine spinach, Creeping spinach, Climbing spinach) is a perennial vine found in the tropics where it is widely used as a leaf vegetable. It belongs to the plant family Basellaceae. Basella alba is a fast-growing, soft-stemmed vine, reaching 10 m in length. Its thick, semi-succulent, heart-shaped leaves have a mild flavour and mucilaginous texture. The stem of the cultivar Basella alba 'Rubra' is reddish-purple.
734 Basella rubra unknown see Basella alba
651 Bertholletia excelsa authorized Juvie ztepilá (CZ), Brazil nut, Brazil nut tree (EN), Paranød (DK), Paranoot (NL), Parapähkinäpuu (FI), Noix du Brésil, Noyer de para, berthollétie, châtaignier du Brésil (FR), Paranuss (DE), Carydia vrasilias (GR), Brasilíuhneta (IS), Noci del Brasile (IT), Paranøtt (NO), Castanheiro do Maranhão, castanha do Pará (PT), Orzech brazylijski (PL), Paranöt (SE), Bertholecia (BG), Nuez del Brasil, yuvia, castaño de Pará (ES)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the seeds (originates from a capsule) of Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut tree). All other parts of the plant or oil from the Brazil nut can be considered as novel food The Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) is a South American tree in the family Lecythidaceae, and also the name of the tree's commercially harvested edible seed. The Brazil nut is a large tree, reaching 50 metres (165 ft) tall and 1–2 metres (3–6.5 ft) trunk diameter, among the largest of trees in the Amazon Rainforests. It may live for 500 years or more, and according to some authorities often reaches an age of 1,000 years. The stem is straight and commonly unbranched for well over half the tree's height, with a large emergent crown of long branches above the surrounding canopy of other trees.
875 Betula alba unknown see Betula pendula
874 Betula alleghaniensis food_supplement NL: Gele berk, EN: Yellow Birch, FR: Bouleau jaune, DE: Gelb-Birke, FI: Keltakoivu, SE: Björk||According to the information available (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements) only the use of following plant parts is authorized: bark, leaf. Betula alleghaniensis (Yellow Birch), is a species of birch native to eastern North America, from Newfoundland to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, southern Quebec and Ontario, and the southeast corner of Manitoba in Canada, west to Minnesota, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree reaching 20 m tall (exceptionally to 30 m) with a trunk up to 80 cm diameter. The bark is smooth, yellow-bronze, flaking in fine horizontal strips, and often with small black marks and scars. The twigs, when scraped, have a slight scent of oil of wintergreen, though not as strongly so as the related Sweet Birch. The leaves are alternate, ovate, 6-12 cm long and 4-9 cm broad, with a finely serrated margin. The flowers are wind-pollinated catkins 3-6 cm long, the male catkins pendulous, the female catkins erect. The fruit, mature in fall, is composed of numerous tiny winged seeds packed between the catkin bracts.
61 Betula alnoides food_supplement Berk (NL), Birke (DE), Bříza olšovitá (CZ), Birk (DK), Bērzs (LV), Vrsta breze (SL), Björk-art (SE)||This birch tree (Betulaceae family) is a large ever-green tree that can grow in extremely difficult conditions in Asia it has fast-growth even on infertile soils and can grow to 40 m at altitudes of 800 - 1700 m. The bark contains oils that can be extracted easily.
876 Betula pendula food_supplement EN: Silver Birch, NL: Ruwe berk, FR: Bouleau verruqueux, Bouleau blanc, Betula alba, FI: Rauduskoivu, SE: Vårtbjörk, DE: Hänge-Birke, Sandbirke, Weißbirke, Warzenbirke||Only the following plant parts may be used in food supplements: leaf, bark, bud, sap. In addition sap/juice is considered not novel. Betula pendula (Silver Birch) is a widespread European birch, though in southern Europe it is only found at higher altitudes. Its range extends into southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey and the Caucasus. The closely related Betula platyphylla in northern Asia and Betula szechuanica of central Asia are also treated as varieties of Silver Birch by some botanists, as B. pendula var. platyphylla and B. pendula var. szechuanica respectively.
877 Betula pubescens food_supplement EN: Downy Birch, White Birch, NL: Zachte berk, Gewone berk, FR: Bouleau pubescent, Bouleau des marais, DE: Moor-Birke, Haar-Birke, Besen-Birke, Behaarte Birke , FI: Hieskoivu, SE: Glasbjörk||Only the following plant parts are authorized for use in food supplements: leaf, flower, bud, bark. In addition sap/juice is considered not novel. Betula pubescens (syn. Betula alba; Downy Birch; also known as White Birch, European White Birch or Hairy Birch) is a species of birch, native and abundant throughout northern Europe, Iceland, northern Asia and also Greenland.
62 Bignonia lactiflora unknown see Distictis lactiflora
63 Bignonia rigescens unknown see Distictis lactiflora
64 Bixa orellana authorized Achiote, Orleaanboom (NL), Rocoyer (FR), Annatto (DE), annatto (FI) (CZ), värvibiksa (ET), anato (CZ), annatofa, orleánfa (HU), Annato koks, Orleānas koks (LV), Arnota właściwa (PL), annatto (SE)||Tree belonging to the Bixaceae Family and native to Continental tropical America, from Mexico to Argentina and throughout the Caribbean Islands. The fruit has an orange red pulp covering the seeds.Only the seeds are used as spices or in food supplements the EU.
884 Borojoa patinoi pending EN: Borojo||The request concerns the fruit of Borojoa patinoi. Borojoa patinoi, commonly known as borojó, is a mid-sized (3 to 5m), tropical forest tree that belongs to the Rubiaceae family. It grows in the northwest area of Colombia in the Chocó Department and in the Esmeraldas Province of Ecuador, in areas of high humidity (over 85%) and an average temperature of 28°C, both in the wild and on local farms. The fruit is large (about 12 cm length), with a round shape and brown color and average weight of 740-1000 grams. The pulp represents 88% of the total weight. Each fruit has 90 to 640 seeds. Borojo is used in the preparation of e.g. jam, wine and desserts.
883 Borojoa sorbilis pending EN: Borojo||The request concerns the fruit of Borojoa sorbilis. Borojoa is a genus of flowering plants in the Rubiaceae family. The name is derived from the Emberá word Borojó meaning: boro = head, ne-jo = fruit - head-shaped fruit, or round, globulous fruit. The genus is found in Central and South Tropical America.
65 Boswellia serrata food_supplement Frankincense, indischer Weihrauch (DE), saagjas viirukpuu (ET), kadidlovník pilovitý (CZ), Indiai tönjénfa (HU), Vīraka koks (LV), vrsta bosvelije (SL), Kadzidla piłkowana (PL), rökelseträd (SE)||Plant belonging to the Burseraceae Family and found mainly in India and Africa.
1002 Bovine lactoferrin food_supplement Bovine lactoferrin is a protein that occurs naturally in cow’s milk. It is an iron-binding glycoprotein. Bovine lactoferrin is not considered as novel in food supplements. However, when it is intended to be used in foods other than food supplements as defined in point (a) of Article 2 of Directive 2002/46/EC it is novel. As a novel food, bovine lactoferrin has been included in the Union list of authorized novel foods (Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/2470) to be used as a food ingredient under specific conditions of use and specifications.
791 Brassica eruca unknown See Eruca sativa
771 Brassica juncea authorized Mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, Leaf mustard, Brown mustard (EN), Sareptasenap (SE), Gorchica sareptska (BG), Sareptasennep (DK), Amsoi (NL), Sareptansinappi (FI), Moutarde de l’Inde, moutarde chinoise (FR), Sareptasenf, Indischer Braunsenf (DE), Sinnepskál (IS), Senape indiana (IT), Sennepskål (NO), Mostarda-da-China, mostarda-vermelha, mostarda-da-Índia (PT), Gorczyca, musztardowiec indyjski (PL), Mostaza parda (ES)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the leaves and seeds (originates from a capsule) of Brassica juncea. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Brassica juncea, also known as mustard greens, Indian mustard, Chinese mustard, and leaf mustard, is a species of mustard plant that belongs to the plant family Brassicaceae. The leaves, the seeds, and the stem of this mustard variety are edible. The plant appears in some form in African, Italian, Indian, Chinese, Japanese, and soul food cuisine.
630 Brassica nigra authorized Black mustard, brown mustard (EN), Cheren sinap (BG), Sort Sennep (DK), Zwarte mosterd (NL), Mustasinappi (FI), Moutarde noire (FR), Schwarzer Senf (DE), Svartmustarður, sinnepsjurt (IS), Senape nera (IT), Svartsennep (NO), Mostarda ordinária, mostarda preta (PT), Gorczyca czarna (PL), Mostaza negra (ES), Svartsenap (SE), Sinapi (GR)||Black or brown mustard seeds (originates from capsules) have been used as food within the EU before 15 May 1997. However, the request concerns black mustard oil. Brassica nigra (black or brown mustard) is an annual weedy plant cultivated for its seeds, which are commonly used as a spice. The plant is believed to be native to the southern Mediterranean region of Europe, and has been cultivated for thousands of years. It belongs to the plant family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).
973 Brewer's spent grain authorized Brewer's spent grain is mainly composed of fiber and protein fractions from the residues of malt from beer brewing process and only contains a minor amount of chaff. It is considered as not novel, whereas the chaff as an ingredient is considered as novel.
772 Cajanus cajan authorized Ervilha-de-Angola, andú, cuandú, feijão-congo, feijãoguandu (PT), Nikla indyjska (PL), Gandú (ES), Duvärt (SE), Yellow dhal, pigeon pea, red gram (EN), Repica (BG), Ærtebønne (DK), Struikerwt, Katjang goedé (NL), Kyyhkyherne (FI), Pois d’Angola, ambrevade, pois cajan (FR), Straucherbse, Taubenerbse, Strauchbohne (DE), Dúfnabaun (IS), Pisello d’Angola (IT), Cajanbønne (NO)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the seeds (originates from the pod) of Cajanus cajan. The pigeon pea, also known as yellow dhal, red gram, tropical green pea, gunga pea, or no-eye pea, [Cajanus cajan, synonyms Cajanus indicus Spreng. and Cytisus cajan] is a perennial member of the family Fabaceae (Leguminosae subfam. Papilionoideae). The cultivation of the pigeon pea goes back at least 3500 years. The centre of origin is the eastern part of peninsular India, including the state of Orissa, where the closest wild relatives (Cajanus cajanifolia) occur in tropical deciduous woodlands. Archaeological finds of pigeonpea include those from two Neolithic sites in Orissa, Gopalpur and Golbai Sassan dating between 3400 and 3000 years ago, and sites in South India, Sanganakallu and Tuljapur Garhi, also dating back to 3400 years ago. From India it traveled to East Africa and West Africa. There is was first encountered by Europeans, so it obtained the name Congo Pea. By means of the slave trade it came to the American continent, probably in the 17th century. Pigeon peas are both a food crop (dried peas, flour, or green vegetable peas) and a forage/cover crop. They contain high levels of protein and the important amino acids methionine, lysine, and tryptophan. In combination with cereals, pigeon peas make a well-balanced human food. The dried peas may be sprouted briefly, then cooked, for a flavor different from the green or dried peas. Sprouting also enhances the digestibility of dried pigeon peas via the reduction of indigestible sugars that would otherwise remain in the cooked dried peas.
878 Calluna vulgaris food_supplement EN: Common heather, ling, heather, SE: Ljung, FI: Kanerva, NL: Struikhei, FR: Callume, Bruyère commune, DE: Besenheide||According to the information available (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements) only the use of following plant parts is authorized: flowering stem. Calluna vulgaris (known as Common Heather, ling, or simply heather) is the sole species in the genus Calluna in the family Ericaceae. It is a low-growing perennial shrub growing to 20 to 50 centimetres (7.9 to 20 in) tall, or rarely to 1 metre (39 in) and taller, and is found widely in Europe and Asia Minor on acidic soils in open sunny situations and in moderate shade. It is the dominant plant in most heathland and moorland in Europe, and in some bog vegetation and acidic pine and oak woodland. It is tolerant of grazing and regenerates following occasional burning, and is often managed in nature reserves and grouse moors by sheep or cattle grazing, and also by light burning.
69 Camelina sativa authorized Camilina oil, Gold of pleasure oil (EN), Cameline cultivee, vlasdodder (NL), ruistankio, kitupellava, camellina-kasvi (FI), Leindotter (DE), põldtuder (ET), lnička setá (CZ), Sésamo bastardo (ES), vetési gomborka (HU), Idras, idri, judras (LV), navadni riček (SL), Lnicznik siewny (PL), Oljedådra (SE), Camelina (PT)||Plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family. It is native to Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia, where wild weedy forms survive other weedy types have evolved and are found in cereal and flax crops. The developed crop form was widely grown across Europe until the 1950s.Only the oil of Camelina sativa is known to be used in the EU as a food or food ingredient.
70 Camellia furfuracea pending čajovník otrubičnatý (CZ), vrsta kamelije (SL), te - kamelia släkting (SE)||Belongs to the Theaceae Family. A shrub or small tree, 2-3 m tall, native to Asia (China, Vietnam and Laos). The leaves are coriaceous. Some historical uses are as ornamental shrubs and/or as a source of tea and seed oils. A negative opinion on the substantial equivalence of this oil with olive oil ( Olea europae) has been issued by The NL (07/08/2003).Due to differences in the composition and unclear information on the levels of undesirable substances and because of the uncertainty about the production process and related quality safeguards.The NL committee concludes that the oil consists of 90% - 99% fats. Most of the fatty acids are unsaturated (52-86% oleic acid and 7,5-7,6% linoleic acid).
71 Camelus dromedarius authorized Wielbład jednogarbny (mleko) (PL), Dromedar (DE), dromedar (SE), üksküürkaamel (ET)||Without prejudice to other requirements concerning the use and handling of (Camel) milk, Camel milk does not require autorisation under Regulation (EC) No 258/97 as it was on the market in the Eu before 15 May 1997.
940 Cannabidiol forbidden Please consult the entry “cannabinoids”
972 Cannabinoids forbidden The hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.) contains a number of cannabinoids and the most common ones are as follows: delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), its precursor in hemp, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Δ9-THCA-A), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid B (Δ9-THCA-B), delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), its precursor in hemp cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9-THCV). Without prejudice to the information provided in the novel food catalogue for the entry relating to Cannabis sativa L., extracts of Cannabis sativa L. and derived products containing cannabinoids are considered novel foods as a history of consumption has not been demonstrated. This applies to both the extracts themselves and any products to which they are added as an ingredient (such as hemp seed oil). This also applies to extracts of other plants containing cannabinoids. Synthetically obtained cannabinoids are considered as novel
72 Cannabis sativa L. authorized Kaņepe (sējas) (LV), Hampa (SE), Hemp (EN), hamp (DK), Hanf (DE), hennep (NL), chanvre (FR), cânhamo (PT), konopie siewne (PL), harilik kanep (ET), konopí seté (CZ), Cáñamo (ES), indiai kender (HU), ινδική κάνναβις (EL), navadna ali industrijska konoplja (SL), hamppu (FI)||In the European Union, the cultivation of Cannabis sativa L. varieties is permitted provided they are registered in the EU’s ‘Common Catalogue of Varieties of Agricultural Plant Species’ and the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content does not exceed 0.2 % (w/w). Some products derived from the Cannabis sativa plant or plant parts such as seeds, seed oil, hemp seed flour, defatted hemp seed have a history of consumption in the EU and therefore, are not novel. Other specific national legislation may restrict the placing on the market of this product as a food or food ingredient in some Member States. Therefore, it is recommended to check with the national competent authorities
773 Capparis rupestris unknown see Capparis spinosa
73 Capparis spinosa authorized Caper, caperbush, caper plant, caperberry (EN), Câprier épineux, câpre, (tapana) (FR), Kaper, (Kapernstrauch) (DE), Cappero, (capperone) (IT), Alcaparra (PT), Kappertjes (NL), Kapricserje (HU), Kappar (ET), Cappari (GR), Capparis rupestris, Kapers (DK, NO), Kapris (FI, SE), Bodliv kaparis (BG), Kapersrunni, Kaper (IS), Kapary (PL), Alcaparro, alcaparra (ES)||The flower buds, fruits (berries) and leaves of Capparis spinosa (caper) have been used as food within the EU before 15 May 1997. Capparis spinosa, the caper bush, is a perennial winter-deciduous species that bears rounded, fleshy leaves and large white to pinkish-white flowers. It belongs to the plant family Capparidaceae (Capparaceae). A caper is also the pickled bud of this plant. Caper bush is present in almost all the circum-Mediterranean countries and is included in the floristic composition of most of them but whether it is indigenous to this region is uncertain. Although the flora of the Mediterranean region has considerable endemism, the caper bush could have originated in the tropics, and later been naturalized to the Mediterranean basin. The plant is best known for the edible bud and fruit (caper berry), which are usually consumed pickled. Other species of Capparis are also picked along with C. spinosa for their buds or fruits. The salted and pickled caper bud (also called simply capers) is often used as a seasoning or garnish. Capers are a common ingredient in Mediterranean cuisine, especially Cypriot, Italian and Maltese. The mature fruit of the caper shrub are also prepared similarly, and marketed as caper berries. They are commonly used in salads, pasta salads, pizzas, meat dishes and pasta sauces. In addition, the Greeks make good use of the caper's leaves, which are especially desirable and hard to find outside of Greece.
377 Capsicum frutescens pending Tabasco pepper, chili pepper, bird pepper, cayenne pepper (EN), Piri-piri, malagueta, pimenta-de-Caienne (PT), Paprika křovitá, kayenský pepř (CZ), Pieprzowiec owocowy (PL), Piper (BG), Cayennepeber (DK), Spaanse peper, Cayenne peper, Echte chilipeper, Tabasco (NL), Pensaspaprika, cayenne- ja chilipippuri (FI), Piment de Cayenne, Cayenne, Piment enrage (FR), Cayennepfeffer, Chili, Peperoni, Sambal (DE), Kafteri piperia (GR), Chilepipar, Eldpaprika (IS), Peperoncino (IT), Kayennepepper, chilipepper (NO), Chile, Pimiento de Cayena (ES), Tabascopeppar (SE)||The fruits (berries) of Capsicum frutescens (tabasco pepper, chili pepper, bird pepper or cayenne pepper) have been used as food within the EU before 15 May 1997. In addition, the use of sapwood is authorized to use in food supplements. However, the request concerns the use of leaves of Capsicum frutescens. Capsicum frutescens is a species of chili pepper in the plant family Solanaceae that includes the following cultivar and varieties: - Piri piri, also called African Bird's Eye or African devil - Kambuzi pepper, Malawian pepper - Malagueta pepper - Tabasco pepper, used to make Tabasco sauce - Thai pepper, also called Bird's Eye chili, Chili Padi or Siling labuyo The Capsicum frutescens species likely originated in South or Central America. It spread quickly throughout the tropical and subtropical regions in this area and still grows wild today. Capsicum frutescens is currently native to the majority of Central America as well as Northern and Western South America. Pepper varieties in Capsicum frutescens can be annual or short-lived perennial plants. Flowers are white with a greenish white or greenish yellow corolla, and are either insect or self-fertilized. The plants' berries typically grow erect; ellipsoid-conical to lanceoloid shaped. They are usually very small and pungent, growing 10-20mm long and 3-7mm in diameter. Fruit typically grows a pale yellow and matures to a bright red, but can also be other colors.
531 Carduus benedictus unknown see Cnicus benedictus
33 Carica papaya pending Papaya, papayero, mamón (ES), Harilik papaia (ET), Papaya, papaw tree (EN), Papaya, dineno durvo (BG), Almindelig Papaja (Papaya) (DK), Papaja (PL), Papaija (FI), Papaye, Papayer (FR), Papaya (DE, IT, NO, SE), Papajia (GR), Papajaaldin, sólaldintré (IS), Papaeira (papaia, mamão, mamoeiro) (PT), Papaja, Meloenboom (NL)||The fruit (berry) of Carica papaya has been used as food within the EU before 15 May 1997. However, the request concerns the oil of the fruits of Carica papaya. Carica papaya is a small tree (belonging to the plant family Caricaceae), the single stem growing from 5 to 10 m tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk the lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50-70 cm diameter, deeply palmately lobed with 7 lobes. The tree is usually unbranched if unlopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria but are much smaller and wax like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into the large 15-45 cm long, 10-30 cm diameter fruit. The fruit is ripe when it feels soft (like a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. The fruit´s taste is vaguely similar to pineapple and peach, although much milder without the tartness, creamier, and more fragrant, with a texture of slightly over-ripened cantaloupe. The use of seeds and leaves are not novel in food supplements.
34 Carissa carandus food_supplement Karonda (LV), indická třešeň (CZ), karonda (HU) (SL), Karysa (PL)||Karonda (Carissa carandus) is a fruit of Indian origin of dry areas and flourishes well on lands with high temperatures.
334 Carnosine food_supplement L-Carnosine, L-Carnosina (PT) (ES), karnozyna (PL), karnosiini (FI), L-Carnosin (DE), karnosiin (ET), karnosin (CZ), karnozin (HU) (SL), καρνοσίνη (EL), L-karnozīns (LV)||L-Carnosine is a dipeptide (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) found naturally in meat and meat products in significant quantity and possessing antioxidant activity that inhibits lipid oxidation and enhances product shelf life.
35 Carthamus tinctorius authorized Safflower (EN), Saffloer (NL), Carthame des teinturiers (FR), Krokosz barwierski (PL), Açafroa (PT), Saflori, väriohdake (FI), Färberdistel (DE), Värvisafloor (ET), Světlice barvířská (CZ), Azafrán bastardo (ES), Sáfrányszeklice (HU), κάρδαμος ο βαφικός /ατρακτυλίδα (EL), Saflor (DK), Saflors (LV), Färgtistel (SE), Pravi divji žafran (SL)||The use of flowers (petals, in tea like uses) and oil from the seeds of Carthamus tinctoris as food or food ingredient are known in the EU. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual that belongs to the Asteraceae Family. It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds. Traditionally, the crop was also grown for its flowers, used for colouring and flavouring foods. Plants are 30 to 150 cm tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange or red flowers. Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. Safflower is native to arid environments having seasonal rain. It grows a deep taproot which enables it to thrive in such environments.
879 Carum carvi authorized NO: Karve, PT: Alcaravia, alcarovía, cominho-arménio, cheriviã, PL: Kminek, ES: Alcaravea, comino de prado, EN: Caraway, meridian fennel, Persian cumin , NL: Echte karwij, Karwij, FR: Carvi, Cumin des prés, FI: Kumina, DE: Kümmel, SE: Kummin, BG: Kimion, DK: Kommen, GR: Cary, IS: Kúmen, IT: Carvi, cumino dei prati, cumino tedesco||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the fruits (schizocarp) of Carum carvi. Caraway (Carum carvi) also known as meridian fennel, or Persian cumin is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), native to western Asia, Europe and Northern Africa. The plant is similar in appearance to a carrot plant, with finely divided, feathery leaves with thread-like divisions, growing on 20–30 cm stems. The main flower stem is 40–60 cm tall, with small white or pink flowers in umbels. Caraway fruits (erroneously called seeds) are crescent-shaped achenes, around 2 mm long, with five pale ridges.
36 Catimbium nutans unknown see Alpinia speciosa
672 Centaurea cyanus authorized Cornflower (EN), Kornblume (DE), Bachelor's button (EN), Bluebottle (EN), Boutonniere flower (EN), Hurtsickle (EN), Cyani flower (EN), Ruiskukka (FI), Ruiskaunokki (FI)||The request concerns the flowers of Centaurea cyanus. Centaurea cyanus (Cornflower, Bachelor's button, Bluebottle, Boutonniere flower, Hurtsickle, Cyani flower) is a small annual flowering plant in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe. "Cornflower" is also erroneously used for chicory, and more correctly for a few other Centaurea species; to distinguish C. cyanus from these it is sometimes called Common Cornflower. It may also be referred to as basketflower, though the term properly refers to the Plectocephalus group of Centaurea, which is probably a distinct genus. It is an annual plant growing to 16-35 inches tall, with grey-green branched stems. The leaves are lanceolate, 1–4 cm long. The flowers are most commonly an intense blue colour, produced in flowerheads (capitula) 1.5–3 cm diameter, with a ring of a few large, spreading ray florets surrounding a central cluster of disc florets. The blue pigment is protocyanin, which in roses is red. The cornflower is considered a beneficial weed, and its edible flower can be used to add colour to salads. Cornflowers are often used as an ingredient in some tea blends and herbal teas, and is famous in the Lady Grey blend of Twinings.
38 Centella asiatica authorized Gotu Kola, asiatischer Wassernabel (DE), Indian Pennywort (EN), hydrocotyle d´Asie (FR), wąkrota azjatycka (PL), centelha (PT), aasia vesinaba (ET), pupečník asijský (CZ), Hidrocotila (ES), gotukola (HU), asiatisk centelle (DK), Vairoglape (LV), azijski vodni popnjak (SL), spikblad (SE)||Member of the Umbelliferae Family. Native to areas such as Sri Lanka and South Africa, this ground-hugging plant grows in a widespread distribution in tropical, swampy areas, including parts of India, Pakistan and Madagascar. It also grows in Eastern Europe. The parts used are primarily the leaves and the roots.
39 Centrophorus squamosus food_supplement Shark liver oil (EN), haaileverolie (NL), olej z wątroby rekina (PL), piikkihai (FI), Haileberöl (DE), hall lühiogahai (ET), bezkýlovec listošupinatý (CZ), cápa (HU), ηπατέλαιο αγκαθίτη (EL), olje iz jeter morskega psa (SL), Kortfenad bladtandhaj (SE)||This request concerns only the use of shark liver oil.The deep sea shark Centrophorus squamosus belongs to the Squalidae Family. Among the different commercial interests, development of these type of fisheries took place notably for their livers, and/or their vitamin A content (shark liver oil).
602 Ceratonia siliqua authorized EN: Carob tree, St John's-bread, CZ: Rohovník obecný, NL: Johannesbroodboom, FR: Caroubier, FI: Johanneksenleipäpuu, SE: Johannesbröd||The request concerns the fruit, gum, seed and pod of the carob tree. The carob tree (Arabic: خروب‎ kharūb; Hebrew: חרוב‎ ḥaruv), Ceratonia siliqua, is a species of flowering evergreen shrub or tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the Mediterranean region.
40 Cervus elaphus food_supplement Deer horn powder (EN), Antlers (EN), le bois de velours (FR), veado (PT), jeleń szlachetny (proszek z poroży jelenia) (PL), punahirvi, saksanhirvi (FI), Hirschhornpulver (DE), punahirv (ET), jelen lesní (CZ), Ciervo (ES), gím szarvas (HU), hjortehorn pulver (DK), Staltbrieža ragu pulveris (LV), prah iz jelenjega roga (SL), kronhjort (SE)||This item concerns only the use of the antlers as "deer horn powder".
99 Cetraria islandica food_supplement Iceland Moss (EN), Ijslands mos (NL), Lichen d´Islande (FR), Líchen da Islândia (PT), Płucnica islandzka (PL), Islanninjäkälä, isohirvenjäkälä (FI), Isländisch Moos (DE), Islandi käosamblik (ET), Pukléřka islandská (CZ), Liquen de Islandia (ES), Izlandi zuzmo (HU), ισλανδικός λειχήνας (EL), Islandsk mos (DK), Islandes ķērpis (LV), Islandski lišaj (SL), Islandslav (SE)||The use of all plant parts of Cetraria islandica (Iceland moss) is permitted. Like all lichens, Cetraria islandica is made up of two types of plants, a fungus and an alga. The body (thallus) of the lichen is made up of the filaments, or hyphae, of the fungus and the plants live together in a mutually beneficial relationship known as symbiosis: the green alga synthesizes or makes food for itself and the fungus while the fungus absorbs and retains water that the alga uses in photosynthesis.
709 Chamaemelum nobile authorized Anthemis nobilis, Noble chamomile, roman chamomile (EN), Chamomile, garden camomile, ground apple, low chamomile, English chamomile, whig plant (EN), Romerkamille (DK), Roomse kamille (NL), Jalosauramo (FI), Camomille romaine (FR), Römische Kamille, Edelkamille, Gartenkamille, Römische Hundskamille (DE), Xamomili (GR), Gæsajurt (IS), Manzanilla, camomilla odorosa (romana) (IT), Romers kamille (NO), Chuven (BG), Macela, camomila-romana, macela-dourada (PT), Rumianek rzymski (PO), Manzanilla, camomila común, camomila romana (ES), Romersk kamomill (SE)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant list) concerns the use of the inflorescence(capitulum) and flowers of Chamaemelum nobile. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings especially in teas. Chamaemelum nobile [synonym: Anthemis nobilis], commonly known as Roman Camomile, Chamomile, garden camomile, ground apple, low chamomile, English chamomile, or whig plant, is a low perennial plant found in dry fields and around gardens and cultivated grounds. It belongs to the plant family Asteraceae (Compositae). Chamaemelum nobile has daisy-like white flowers that are found in Europe, North America, and Argentina. The stem is procumbent, the leaves alternate, bipinnate, finely dissected, and downy to glabrous. The solitary, terminal flowerheads, rising 8 to twelve inches above the ground, consist of prominent yellow disk flowers and silver-white ray flowers. The flowering time is June and July, and its fragrance is sweet, crisp, fruity and herbaceous. The plant is used to flavor foods, in tisanes, perfumes, and cosmetics.
100 Chenopodium quinoa authorized Quinoa (PT)(DE) (ES) (DK), komosa ryżowa (PL), kvinoa, quinoa (FI), Reis-Melde (DE), tšiili hanemalts (ET), merlík čilský quinoa (CZ), mirhafű, libatop (HU), Kvinoja (LV), Quinoa, mjölmålla (SE)||Generally considered to be a single species within the Chenopodiaceae (Amaranthaceae) Family. It has a long and distinguished history in South America (in the Andean highlands since 3000 BC) and adaptation to cold, dry climates with a seed processing similar to rice and nutritional qualities. Quinoa is a small seed that in size, shape and color looks like a cross between sesame seed and millet it is not a true cereal grain but it is called both a pseudo-cereal and a pseudo-oilseed. Only the use of the grains or fruits (nuts) of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa, quinua) as food of food ingredient is known in the EU.
335 Chioca authorized Oca||This vegetable originated from the Andes of South America. It ranges from pale creamy-white to deep purlish red in colour and sweet to slightly astringent in taste, depending on variety. It is a popular root crop of the Andes together with potato. It is easy to prepare, as it does not require peeling, however, as it is a root crop, proper cleaning is essential before roasting, steaming or frying.
990 Chlamydomonas reinhardtii forbidden The request concerns the use of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii dried biomass powder. The request was submitted to the authorities of Ireland under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii dried biomass powder is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Chlamydomonas reinhardtii dried biomass powder
101 Chlorella luteoviridis authorized see Chlorella pyrenoidosa
102 Chlorella pyrenoidosa authorized Chlorella (DE), chlorella zwyczajna (PL), viherlevä (FI), zelená sladkovodní řasa chlorela (CZ), klorella alga (HU), Hlorella (LV), Klorela (SL), clorela (PT)||This algae belongs to the Chlorophytae Family and is grown in Japan, China and Taïwan, since 1955. The composition is quite similar to the other macroalgae. It is a nutrient-dense unicellular fresh water green alga .
103 Chlorella vulgaris authorized see Chlorella pyrenoidosa
561 Chondrus crispus authorized Irish moss or carrageen moss (Irish)||It is a species of red algae which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America
104 Chrysanthellum americanum food_supplement Chrysanthellum americanum (L.) Vatke is a plant belonging to the family of Compositae. The request concerns the use of leaves and aerial parts with flowers of Chrysanthellum americanum in food supplements. This use is not novel."
1012 Chrysanthellum indicum food_supplement Chrysanthellum indicum subsp.afroamericanum B.L. Turner belongs to the Asteraceae family. The request concerns the use of leaves and aerial parts with flowers of Chrysanthellum indicum subsp.afroamericanum B.L. in food supplements.This use is not novel
979 Chrysanthemum morifolium forbidden The request concerns the use of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. plant. The request was submitted to the Estonian authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. plant. is considered novel food.The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Chrysanthemum morifolium
106 Chrysanthemum parthenium food_supplement Feverfew (EN), Moederkruid (NL), Tanaceto (PT), Matricária (PT), Złocień maruna (PL), Reunuspäivänkakkara (FI), Mutterkraut (DE), Lõhnav neitsikummel (ET), Kopretina řimbaba (CZ), Matricaria (ES), őszi margitvirág (HU), Meiteņu (LV), Beli vratič (SL), Mattram (SE), Grande camomille (FR)||According to information available the use of the aerial parts of Chrysanthemum parthenium (feverfew) is known in food supplements in the EU before 15 May 1997. Chrysanthemum parthenium is a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. It is strongly aromatic with yellow-green divided leaves.
109 Cinnamomum verum unknown see Cinnamomum zeylanicum
110 Cinnamomum zeylanicum pending Ceylonkanel (DK, NO), Arbol de la Canela, canelero, canelo, canelo de Ceilán (ES), Äkta kanel (SE), Ceylon cinnamom, Cinnamon (EN), Ceilonski cinamon (BG), Kaneelboom, Chinese kaneel (NL), Ceyloninkaneli (FI), Cannelle de Ceylan, Canelle de Chine, Cannelier, Cannellier de Ceylan (FR), Echter Zimt, Ceylonzimt (DE), Canella (GR), Kanill, Kaniltré (IS), Cannella di Ceylon (IT), Canela-de-ceilão, canela-verdadeira (PT), Cynamon (PL)||The request concerns the oil of the leaves of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (synonymus Cinnamomum verum), called "true cinnamon", Ceylon cinnamon or Sri Lanka cinnamon is a small evergreen tree belonging to the family Lauraceae, native to Sri Lanka (former Ceylon). Among other species, its inner bark is used to make cinnamon. Cinnamomum zeylanicum trees are 10–15 metres (32.8–49.2 feet) tall. The leaves are ovate-oblong in shape, 7–18 cm (2.75–7.1 inches) long. The flowers, which are arranged in panicles, have a greenish color, and have a distinct odor. The fruit is a purple 1-cm berry containing a single seed. The bark of the branches of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) has been used as food and in addition the leaves as food supplements within the EU before 15 May 1997.
111 Cistanche deserticola forbidden Cistanche, Rou Cong Rong, woestijnbremraap (NL), cistanche (PL), Wüstencistanchenkraut (DE), kõrbesoomukas (ET), Tuksneša cistanha (LV)||Chinese perennial fleshy herbaceous plant. This herb consists of the pulpy stem with scales of Cistanche deserticola Y.C.Ma (Family Orobanchaceae), which is produced mainly in Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Xinjiang and Qinghai. It is collected in spring, dried in the sun and then sliced for use.
112 Cistus incanus food_supplement Cistus is a genus of flowering plants in the rockrose family Cistaceae, containing about 20 species. They are perennial shrubs found on dry or rocky soils throughout the Mediterranean region, from Morocco and Portugal through to the Middle East, and also on the Canary Islands. Cistus incanus is a variable, densely branched, erect shrub to 1 m, with hairy branches and large, pink flowers 4-6 cm across, in a lax terminal cluster of 1-7. Leaves are green – or greyish-hairy, oval to elliptic, veins impressed above and prominent beneath. The request concerns aerial parts of Cistus incanus.
384 Citrus aurantium authorized Bitter orange, Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, marmalade orange (EN), Pomerans (DK, SE), Pomeranssi (FI), Orange amère, Bigaradier Orange de Curaçao (FR), Pomeranze, Bitterorange, Sevilla‑Orange (DE), Portocalia (GR), Beiskjuappelsína, appelsínubróðir (IS), Arancio amaro (IT), Pomerans, bitterappelsin (NO), Laranjeira-azeda, laranjeira-amarga, laranja-azêda (PT), Pomarancz gorzka (PO), Naranja agria, naranja amarga (ES), Kisel portokal (BG), Pomerans, Bittere oranje appelboom Curaçao oranjeappel (NL)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the fruits (botanically berries) of Citrus aurantium. In addition the leaves and flowers of bitter orange are authorized in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Citrus aurantium belongs to the plant family Rutaceae. The name "bitter orange" refers to a citrus tree and its fruit. Other names for bitter orange include sour orange, bigarade orange and Seville orange.
957 Citrus junos authorized Yuzu, Yuja, Ichang-Zitrone, Ichandrins (DE)||The information available concerns the fruits (botanically berries) as such and its juice and peel of Citrus junos Siebold ex Tanaka (synonym Citrus aurantium subsp. junos Makino). Citrus junos belongs to the plant family Rutaceae.
970 Citrus mitis Blanco authorized Calamondin, Calamansi or Kalamansi||Synonyms: × Citrofortunella mitis (Blanco) J.W.Ingram; × Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands. The information available concerns the fruits (botanically berries) as such and its juice and peel of Calamansi (Citrus mitis Blanco). Calamansi belongs to the plant family Rutaceae and is a hybrid between two well-known citrus fruits: Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and oval Kumquat (Citrus japonica)
338 Clinoptilolite forbidden Cleanolina, Vulkansand, Clinoptilolith (DE), ziemia wulkaniczna (PL), klinoptilolit (CZ), vulkáni ásvány-zeolit (HU), Kleanolīna vulkāniskās smiltis (LV), klinoptilolit (vulkanski prah) (SL)||Clinoptilolite is vulcanic sand.
1022 Clitoria ternatea food_supplement EN: Butterfly pea, Asian pigeonwings, FR: Pois bleu, DE: Blaue klitorie, ES: Conchita azu, NL: Kittelbloem||Clitoria ternatea is a plant that belongs to the family of Fabaceae. The request concerns the use of Clitoria ternatea flowers in food. It is considered not novel in food supplements.
523 Cnicus benedictus food_supplement CZ: Benedikt lékařský, EN: Blessed Thistle, Holy Thistle or Cursed Thistle, FI: Karvasohdake, DE: Benediktenkraut, Kardobenedikte, Benediktendistel, Benediktenkarde, Benediktenwurz, Bitterdistel, FR: Chardon-bénit, NL: Gezegende distel||According to the information available (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements) the use of all plant parts is authorized. Cnicus benedictus (Blessed Thistle, Holy Thistle or Cursed Thistle), the sole species in the genus Cnicus, is a thistle-like plant in the family Asteraceae, native to the Mediterranean region, from Portugal north to southern France and east to Iran. It is an annual plant growing to 60 cm tall, with leathery, hairy leaves up to 30 cm long and 8 cm broad, with small spines on the margins. The flowers are yellow, produced in a dense flowerhead (capitulum) 3-4 cm diameter, surrounded by numerous spiny basal bracts.
114 Cnidium monnieri forbidden Cnidium fruit, herbal viagra (EN), Sigra, She Chuang Zi, Brenndolde (DE), knidium (CZ), Knīdija (LV), knidij (SL)||It belongs to the Apiaceae Family. The ripe fruit is collected in autumn and then dried in the sun. The habitat of Cnidii fructus includes Mainland China, Taiwan and Japan.
115 Codonopsis pilosula food_supplement CZ: Pazvonek Chloupkaty, NL, FR: Codonopsis, DE: Dang Shen, CN: 黨參 / 党参 dǎngshēn, EN: Codonopsis, dang shen, poor man's ginseng, FI: Peikonkello||According to the information available (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements) the use of the root of Conodopsis pilosula as an ingredient to food supplements is known. Codonopsis pilosula (dang shen or poor man's ginseng), is a perennial species of flowering plant native to Northeast Asia and Korea and usually found growing around streambanks and forest openings under the shade of trees. The plant is shrubby and dense and has a tendency to climb, producing heart shaped leaves, light green five pointed bell shaped flowers with prominent yellow or light purple veins. The plant can grow up to 8-10 feet in height with roots 1-3 cm thick.
1004 Coenzyme Q10 authorized Coenzyme Q10 is not novel in food.
882 Coffea sp. authorized DE: Kaffee (Pflanze), FR: Caféier, EN: Coffee, FI: Kahvi, NL: Koffie (boom), GR: Kafea, IS: Kaffi, IT: Caffe’, PT: Caféeiro, cafézeiro, DK, NO, SE: Kaffe, PL: Kawa, ES: Café, Cafeto, BG: Kafe||The request concerns the green unroasted coffee beans and "white coffee" made of them by a non selective water extraction. Coffee is a brewed beverage with a dark, acidic flavor prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant, colloquially called coffee beans. Coffee berries, which contain the coffee seeds or "beans", are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the 'robusta' form of the hardier Coffea canephora (synon. Coffea robusta). The use of the dried remains of Coffea sp. berries (after the coffee ‘beans’ have been removed) in herbal tea (Coffee cherry tea) is novel. It is also known as cascara, from the Spanish cáscara, meaning "husk".
983 Coix lacryma-jobi food_supplement The request concerns the use of seeds of Coix lacryma-jobi L. The request was submitted to the Estonian authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was established only for food supplements. Therefore, the use of seeds of Coix lacryma-jobi L. is considered not novel in food supplements.The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Chrysanthemum morifolium
782 Cola nitida authorized Kola (BG, DK), Colanoot (NL), Koolapuu (FI), Kolatier, Arbre à kola, cola (FR), Koalanuss, Bittere Koalanuss (DE), Noci del Sudan (IT), Kolanøtt (NO), Colateira, coleira, noz de cola (PT), Kola blyszczaca (PL), Nuez de cola, árbol de la cola (ES), Kolaträd (SE), Kola nut tree (EN)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of seeds (berries) of Cola nitida. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Kola Nut (Cola) is the nut of the kola tree (Cola nitida), a genus of trees native to the tropical rainforests of Africa, classified in the family Sterculiaceae. It is related to the South American genus Theobroma, or cocoa. It is an evergreen tree, growing up to 20 m tall (about 60 feet), with glossy ovoid leaves up to 30 cm long and star shaped fruit. Cola nuts are seed pods of the plant. The kola nut has a bitter flavor and contains caffeine. It is chewed in many West African cultures, individually or in a group setting. Among the urban youth of West Africa, kola nut is becoming less popular. Outside mainland Africa, some species are cultivated for their nuts in Brazil, Jamaica and elsewhere in the humid tropics. Kola nuts are perhaps best known to Western culture as a flavouring ingredient and one of the sources of caffeine in cola and other similarly flavoured beverages, although the use of kola (or kola flavoring) in commercial cola drinks has become uncommon.
116 Coleus forskohlii food_supplement Pashanbad, pokrzywa indyjska (PL), forskolin (PL), koleus brodaty (PL), Buntnessel (DE), habe-ilunõges (ET), Skaistnātre (LV)||Tuber crop and perennial plant belonging to the mint Family (Lamiaceae).
963 Collagen authorized The request concerns the use of hydrolysed collagen of animal origin in beverages. Such use is not novel
783 Colocasia antiquorum unknown see Colocasia esculenta
117 Colocasia esculenta authorized Taro (DE) (ES) (SE), Dasheen, taro, old coco-yam, elephant ear (EN), kolokazja jadalna (PL), Zehrwurz (DE), harilik taro (ET), kulkas (CZ), ñame de Canarias (ES), ταρό (EL), Taro (DK, NL, IT, NO, SE), Kolokāzija (LV), Kolokasia (BG), Taaro (FI), Taro, colocase, colcasie (FR), Taro, Kolokasie, Blattwurz, Zehrwurz (DE), Colocasia (GR, PL), Þerrirót, Karabískt spínat (IS), Colocássia, alcolcas, caraiba, inhame (PT), Colocasia, malanga, taro (ES), Colocasia antiquorum||Perennial herb (Araceae Family) to 1.5 m tall with huge elephant ear leaves and which grows in a wide range of dry to wet sites. Native to swampy areas in tropical southeastern Asia, it was then widely cultivated in China, Japan, West Indies, Polynesia and the Hawaiian Islands. Superficially similar to other large-leaved arums such as the exotic elephant’s ear (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) and the native arums (Peltrandra spp.) but Colocascia esculenta is the only one with peltate leaves. The rhizome of Colocasia esculenta is on the EuroFIR- NETTOX Plant List. Only the roots (rhizome) and the leaves of Coloscasia esculenta are known to be used as foods or food ingredients in the EU.
860 Colostrum authorized DE: Kolostrum, EN, FR: Colostrum, FI: Ternimaito||Colostrum as defined by Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 is not considered a novel food.
118 Combretum micranthum food_supplement Kinkeliba, Kantalma, kinkeliba (NL), Combreto (PT) (ES), kombretum drobnokwiatowe (PL), Kinkèliba (DE), sitke kombreetum (ET)||Belongs to the Combretaceae Family. Native to Africa the plant is distributed among the river in Senegal.
119 Commiphora subglauca unknown see Sclerocarya birrea
340 Conjugated linoleic acid food_supplement CLA, Ácido linoeico conjugado (ES) (PT), skoniugowany kwas linolowy (PL), konjukoitu linolihappo (FI), konjugierte Linolsäure (DE), konjugeeritud linoolhape (ET), konjugovaná kyselina linolová (CZ), konjugált linolsav (HU), συζευγμένο λινελαϊκό οξύ (EL), Linolskābe (LV), konjugirana linolna kislina (SL)||Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a naturally occurring group of derivatives of linoleic acid found in beef, dairy products (as a results of incomplete ruminal biohydrogenation) and vegetable oils (sunflower and safflower). The term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a collection of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid with conjugated double bonds.
676 Consolida regalis unknown see Delphinium consolida
380 Corchorus olitorius authorized EN: Jew's mallow, FR: corète potagère||Corchorus olitorius is a species of shrub belonging to the familyTiliaceae. The request concerns the use of leaves. History of consumption on the leaves before 15 May 1997 has been demonstrated in Cyprus
122 Cordyceps dongchongxiacao unknown see Cordyceps sinensis
75 Cordyceps sinensis food_supplement Caterpillar fungus (EN), maczużnik chiński (PL), kiinanloisikka (FIN), Raupenpilz (DE), hiina kedristõlvik (ET), housenice čínská (CZ), hernyó-gomba (HU), Ķīnas miltene, Ķīnas kordiceps (LV), vrsta glavatca (SL), svampklubba (SE)||Cordyceps sinensis (Clavicipitaceae Family) is found on high mountain peaks over 3800 meters above sea level. It is produced in the Himalaya.
76 Coriolus versicolor forbidden Wrośniak różnobarwny (PL), Silkkivyökääpä (FI), Schmetterlingstramete (DE), Kirju tagel (ET), Outkovka pestrá (CZ), Lepketapló (HU), Broget lædersporesvamp (DK), Pisana ploskocevka (SL), Turkey Tail (EN)||see Trametes versicolor
755 Cortinarius caperatus unknown see Rozites caperatus
670 Corylus avellana authorized Gemeine Hasel, Haselstrauch, Haselnussstrauch (DE), Euroopanpähkinä, hasselpähkinä, pähkinäpensas (FI), Common hazel (EN), Noisetier commun, appelé coudrier (FR)||The request concerns the leaves of Corylus avellana. Corylus avellana, the Common Hazel, belongs to the Betulaceae family. It is a species of hazel native to Europe and western Asia, from the British Isles south to Iberia, Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, north to central Scandinavia, and east to the central Ural Mountains, the Caucasus, and northwestern Iran.
77 Costus zerumbet unknown see Alpinia speciosa
1035 Coutarea latiflora forbidden The request concerns the use of Coutarea latiflora DC. in food supplements. It is a novel food as no evidence has been demonstrated that it has been consumed to a significant degree before 15 May 1997. It belongs to the plant family Rubiaceae.
79 Crataegus laevigata authorized Chinese hawthorn (EN), tweestijlige meidoorn (NL), aubépine à deux styles (FR), głóg dwuszyjkowy (PL), orapihlaja (FI), europäischer Weißdorn (DE), tömbilehine viirpuu (ET), hloh obecný (CZ), cseregalagonya (HU), almindelig hvidtjørn (DK), Ķīnas vilkābele (LV), vrsta gloga (SL), rundhagtorn (SE), Pilriteiro (PT)||Species belonging to the Rosaceae Family and native to north China and Korea. The genus Crataegus has more than 250 species found in North America, Europe and northern Asia. Some hawthorn preparations (i.e. Crataegus monogyna and Crataegus laevigata) were studied by the German Commission E monographs, in reference to the use of flowers and leaves and/or fruits.
80 Crataegus oxyachantha unknown see Craetagus pinnatifida
81 Crataegus pinnatifida food_supplement Chinese hawthorn (EN), Chinese meidoorn (NL), głóg pierzastolistny (PL), koreanorapihlaja (FI), chinesischer Weißdorn (DE), sulglõhine viirpuu (ET), hloh peřenoklaný (CZ), kétbibés galagonya (HU), κράταιγος (EL), hvidtjørn (DK), Divirbuļu vilkābeke, Ķīnas vilkābele (LV), vrsta gloga (SL), storfruktig hagtorn (SE), espino blanco (ES), Espinheiro-alvar (PT)||Species belonging to the Rosaceae Family and native to north China and Korea. The genus Crataegus has more than 250 species found in North America, Europe and northern Asia.
297 Creatine Citrate food_supplement Citrato de creatina (PT), cytrynian kreatyny (PL), kreatiinisitraatti (FI), Kreatincitrat (DE), kreatiinsitraat (ET), kreatincitrát (CZ), Creatina citrato (ES), kreatin-citrát (HU), κιτρική κρεατίνη (EL), kreatiintsitraat (ET), Kreatīna citrāts (LV), kreatin citrat (SL)||Creatine [N-(aminoiminomethyl-N-methyl glycine)] occurs naturally in foods such as meat, fish and other animal products. It may also be formed endogenously by liver, kidney and pancreas from the amino acids Gly, Arg and Met.
298 Creatine Pyruvate food_supplement Piruvato de creatina (PT), pirogronian kreatyny (PL), kreatiinipyruvaatti (FI), Kreatinpyruvat (DE), kreatiinpürovaat (ET), kreatinpyruvát (CZ), Creatina piruvato (ES), kreatin-piruvát (HU), πυροσταφυλική κρεατίνη (EL), Kreatīna piruvāts (LV), kreatin piruvat (SL)||Creatine [N-(aminoiminomethyl-N-methyl glycine)] occurs naturally in foods such as meat, fish and other animal products. It may also be formed endogenously by liver, kidney and pancreas from the amino acids Gly, Arg and Met.
82 Crepidula fornicata pending Crépidule (FR), American Limpet (EN), muiltje (NL), małż (PL), kotilo (FI), Pantoffelschnecke (DE), liudkodalane (ET), mořský měkkýš přílipka (CZ), tengeri tapadócsiga (HU), Krepidula (LV), vrsta polža (SL)||Animal belonging to the Mollusca Phylum and native to the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts and the Gulf of Mexico. This species is an hermaphrodite mollusc which can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. . Populations are particularly well developed in wave-protected areas such as bays, estuaries or sheltered sides of wave-exposed islands. C. fornicata shell is oval and up to 5 cm in length.
84 Crocodylus nilotikus unknown nijlkrokodil (NL), krokodyl nilowy (PL), niilinkrokotiili (FI), Nilkrokodil (DE) (SE), krokodýl nilský (CZ), Cocodrilo del Nilo (ES), nilusi krokodil (HU), niiliuse krokodill (ET), Nīlas krokodils (LV), nilski krokodil (SL)||The marketing in the Community of this species is subject to the provision of the Council Regulation EC n° 338/97 of the 9th December 1996 on the protection of species of wild fauna and flora.Crocodylus nilotikus is listed in Annex A and B of the above Regulation in compliance with the objectives, principles and provisions of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of wild fauna and flora (CITES).
1028 Curcumin food_supplement The request concerns the use of the traditional turmeric extract of the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. (with 95% curcuminoids). According to the conclusion reached by the Swedish competent authorities (Swedish Food Agency) in response to a request submitted pursuant to the requirements of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/456 (https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en) on the procedural steps of the consultation process for determination of novel food status, Curcumin is considered not novel in food supplements.
688 Cyclopia sp. authorized Heuningbos (AFR), Honeybush (EN), Honigbusch (DE), Hunajapensas (FI)||The request concerns the leaves, wood (shrub) and herb of honeybush plants. Honeybushes ('Heuningbos' in Afrikaans) are a species of flowering shrubs native to the regions in South Africa. These shrubs belong to the genus Cyclopia and the plant family Fabaceae. The name "honeybush" results from the honey-like smell of honeybush flowers. Honeybush is commonly used to make infusions in the same manner as tea and it has many similarities with rooibos. Honeybush tea is a traditional African herbal tea with the similar taste to that of rooibos but a little sweeter. Parts of the plant known to be used as food are leaves, wood (shrub) and herb. There are over 20 species of honeybush tea found in the wild, of which mainly 4 are in widespread home or commercial use. These are: - Cyclopia genistoides (coastal tea, 'kustee') - Cyclopia intermedia (mountain tea, 'bergtee') - Cyclopia subternata (marshland or valley tea, 'vleitee' or 'valleitee') - Cyclopia sessiliflora ('Heidelberg-tee')
88 Cyperus esculentus authorized Yellow Nutsedge, Earth almond (EN), Chufa, juncia avellanada, cebollín (ES), Knolcyperus (NL), Migdał ziemny (PL), Erdmandel (DE), Söödav lõikhein (ET), šáchor jedlý (CZ), Mandulafű (HU), Jordmandel (DK, SE), Ēdamie dižmeldri (LV), Užitna ostrica (SL), Ladliva kisela treva (BG), Maakastanja (FI), Souchet comestible, amande de terre (FR), Tígrishneta (IS), Zigolo dolce (IT), Matkypergress, jordmandel (NO), Juncinha (PT)||Yellow Nutsedge is an erect perennial sedge and has unbranched stems which are solid and triangular in cross section, it may reach a height of 90 cm. It belongs to the plant family Cyperaceae. In the EU only the tubers (roots) of Cyperus esculentus were used as foodstuff, but not the oil. See "Cyperus esculentus tuber oil" entry.
1030 Cyperus esculentus tuber oil forbidden The request concerns the oil obtained from Tuber (roots) of Cyperus esculentus from hydroponic culture. According to the conclusion reached by the Spanish competent authorities (Spanish Agency for food safety and nutrition) in response to a request submitted pursuant to the requirements of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/456 (https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en) on the procedural steps of the consultation process for determination of novel food status, the use of the oil obtained from Tuber (roots) of Cyperus esculentus from hydroponic farming is considered novel in food. The use of The tuber (roots) of Cyperus esculentus from hydroponic farming is considered not novel in food, see "Cyperus esculentus" entry for more information.
639 D-mannose food_supplement D-mannosa (CZ)||D-Mannose is the 2-epimer of glucose. It is not novel in food supplements
604 Dacryodes edulis authorized FR: Safoutier, prunier, atanga, EN: Native pear, bush butter tree, African pear, African plum||Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J. Lam (family Burseraceae) is a diecious, evergreen tree, indigenous to the Gulf of Guinea and widely cultivated in other tropical parts of Africa for its fruit. The fruit of Dacryodes edulis is considered as not novel.
90 Daucus carota authorized Peen, wortel (NL), Carotte (FR), Cenoura (PT), Marchew, marchew zwyczajna (PL), Porkkana (FI), Möhre, Karotte, Gelbe Rübe (DE), Porgand (ET), Mrkev obecná (CZ), Zanahoria (ES), Vadmurok (HU), καρότο (EL), Vild gulerod, Gulerod, Havegulerod (DK), Savvaļas burkāns (LV), Navadno korenje (SL), Morot (SE), Carrot (EN), Caroto (GR), Villigulrót (IS), Carota selvatica (IT), Gulrot (NO), Morkov (BG)||Belongs to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Family. Probably native to western Asia or the Near East, but forms are found in the Mediterranean region, Southwest Asia, tropical Africa, Australia and North and South America (Reed, 1976). The edible part is the root.
91 Daucus gingidium unknown see Daucus carota L.
675 Delphinium consolida authorized Forking Larkspur (EN), Consolida regalis, Consolida arvensis, Consolida segetum, Delphinium diffusum, Delphinium divaricatum, Delphinium segetum, Delphinium versicolor, Rittersporn (DE), Royal Knight's-spur (EN), Kenttä-kukonkannus (FI)||The request concerns the flowers of Delphinium consolida. Consolida regalis (Royal Knight's-spur or Forking Larkspur) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the genus Consolida of the Buttercup family (Ranunculaceae). This plant is native to western Asia and Europe. It is widespread in the central and southern Europe, but it has become quite rare for the increased use of herbicides and intensive soil cultivation.
908 Dendrobium nobile forbidden Dendrobium nobile is a member of the family Orchidaceae. The species grows widespread in the foothills of the Himalayas. Dendrobium nobile was first known from China and was later imported for cultivation into Europe from India. It has become a popular cultivated decorative house plant and produces colourful blooms in winter and spring. Synonyms: Dendrobium coerulescen, Callista nobilis.
727 Dendrocalamus asper authorized Bambusa aspera, Bamboo, bamboo cane (EN), Bambuk (BK), Bambus (DK, DE, NO, PL), Bamboe (NL), Bambu (FI), Bambou (FR), Calami babu (GR), Bambusreyr (IS), Bambù (IT), Bambú (PT), Bambú gigante (ES), Grönsaksbambu (SE)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the stem (botanically immature shoot) of Dendrocalamus asper. Dendrocalamus asper or Bambusa aspera is one edible bamboo species. Bamboo is a group of woody perennial grasses in the true grass family Poaceae (Gramineae), which is a large family with over 10,000 species. The size of bamboo varies from small annuals to giant timber bamboo. Bamboo was only added to the world between 30 and 40 million years ago, after the demise of the dinosaurs. Bamboo is the fastest growing woody plant in the world. It can grow up to 3–4 feet/day (1.5-2.0 inches/hr).
728 Dendrocalamus latiflorus authorized Bambusa latiflora, Bamboo, bamboo cane (EN), Bambuk (BG), Bamboe (NL), Bambu (FI), Bambou (FR), Calami babu (GR), Bambusreyr (IS), Bambù (IT), Bambú (PT, ES), Grönsaksbambu (SE), Bambus (DK, DE, NO, PL)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the stem (botanically immature shoot) of Dendrocalamus latiflorus. Dendrocalamus latiflorus or Bambusa latiflora is one of the edible bamboo species. Bamboo is a group of woody perennial grasses in the true grass family Poaceae (Gramineae), which is a large family with over 10,000 species. The size of bamboo varies from small annuals to giant timber bamboo. Bamboo was only added to the world between 30 and 40 million years ago, after the demise of the dinosaurs. Bamboo is the fastest growing woody plant in the world. It can grow up to 3–4 feet/day (1.5-2.0 inches/hr).
92 Desmodium gangeticum food_supplement Asumat, salparni, orila, konicz (PL), Wandelklee (DE)||Small shrub of tropical region, native from Africa and Asia.
787 Dioscorea alata authorized Iams (BG), Yams (DK), Greater yam, purple yam, Guyana arrowroot, ten-months yam, water yam, white yam, winged yam, yam(EN), Jamssi (FI), Igname (FR), Yamwurzel, Wasser-Yam (DE), Glycopatata (GR), Dioscoria selvatica (IT), Jams (NO), Cará, inhame (PT), Wodny yam (PL), Ñame de agua (ES), Storjams (SE), Yam (NL)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant list) concerns only the use of the roots (tuber) of Dioscorea alata. Dioscorea alata, known as purple yam and many other names (greater yam, Guyana arrowroot, ten-months yam, water yam, white yam, winged yam, yam, uhi in Hawaiʻi, ratalu or violet yam in India, kondfal (कोंदफळ) in Marathi, ube in the Philippines, rasa valli kilangu in Tamil, ʻufi in Tonga, Samoa and Tahiti, and khoai mỡ in Vietnam), is a species of yam, a tuberous root vegetable, that is bright lavender in color. It is sometimes confused with taro and the Okinawa sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Ayamurasaki). With its origins in the Asian tropics, D. alata has been known to humans since ancient times. It belongs to the plant family Dioscoreaceae. Purple yam is used in a variety of desserts, as well as a flavor for ice cream, milk, Swiss rolls, tarts, cookies, cakes, and other pastries. D. alata is also valued for the starch that can be processed from it.
788 Dioscorea esculenta authorized Chinese Yam, Lesser Yam (EN) , Kitaiski iams (BG), Yams (DK), Yam (NL), Kiinalainen jamssi (FI), Igname (FR), Yamwurzel, Asiatischer Yam (DE), Glycopatata (GR), Radice di Yan (IT), Jams (NO), Chinski yam (PL), Balata de Chiva (ES), Inhame (PT), Småjams (SE)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant list) concerns only the use of the roots (tuber) of Dioscorea esculenta. Dioscorea esculenta, commonly known as the Lesser or Chinese Yam, is a yam species, but with a smaller corm than most other yams. It is closer in size to a potato or sweet potato. Dioscorea esculenta belongs to the genus Dioscorea (plant family Dioscoreaceae) referring to the plants producing edible roots known as yams.
885 Dioscorea opposita pending EN: Nagaimo, yamaimo, Chinese yam, Japanese mountain yam, Korean yam||The request concerns the extracts (water & ethanol) made from the root of Dioscorea opposita. Yam is the common name for some species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae). These are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania. There are many cultivars of yam. Dioscorea opposita (nagaimo, yamaimo, Chinese yam, Japanese mountain yam, Korean yam; syn. D. batatas, D. oppositifolia) is used e.g. in Japanese and Chinese cuisine. It is a type of yam that exceptionally may be eaten raw.
789 Dioscorea rotundata authorized Common yam, white yam, Guinea yam (EN), Iams (BG), Yams (DK), Yam (NL, PL), Jamssi (FI), Igname (FR), Yamwurzel, Weißer Yam (DE), Glycopatata (GR), Dioscorea (IT), Jams (NO, SE), Inhame (PT), Ñame blanco (ES)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant list) concerns only the use of the roots (tuber) of Dioscorea rotundata. Dioscorea rotundata, the "white or common yam", is a species of yam native to Africa. It is one of the most important cultivated yams, along with the Dioscorea cayenensis. It is sometimes known as the "Guinea Yam". D. rotundata can be defined as a group of cultivated Dioscoreaceae yams of African origin, with a slightly or non-pigmented (creamy or white) flesh. Dioscorea rotundata is grown in West Africa especially Nigeria. It is about 1.6m in height and weighs about 2–5 kg depending on size. The tuber has a rough skin usually dark to light brown in color. This rough skin can be peeled with minimal degree of difficulty. The yam become edible only if it is well washed and properly cooked. These steps are necessary in order to reduce the anti-nutritional componenets of yam before consumption. White yam consists of starch, which is the only quantitatively important digestible polysaccharides being regarded nutritionally superior to low molecular weight carbohydrate or sugar. Fresh tubers are used to prepare traditional food dishes. From Cote d' Ivoire to Nigeria, yams are most appreciated eaten in pounded form called futu or fufu, a dough obtained by mortar pounding tubers that have been boiled until soft. These countries account for over 90% of D. rotundata production in Africa. North of this area and throughout Central Africa, yam preparation is simpler, the tubers are just boiled and served with various stews. Recent studies have shown that most inhabitants of urban areas of West Africa eat boiled or fried yams, often as a snack away from home. The use of yam flour (produced by milling dried chips) is another emerging habit. Yam flour is very well adapted to urban cooking requirements and is used to prepare a dough called Amala, a staple or occasional food for about 50% of the population of Cotonou (Benin) and towns of southwestern Nigeria. Amala is not perceived as a substitute for fufu but rather as a food in its own right. Many D. rotundata yams are more or less bitter. The bitterness is usually greater at the tip of the tuber, which is why this part is often removed before pounding. Physiological immaturity of the tuber and unfavorable environmental conditions (drought, waterlogging) are factors that increase the bitterness. The latter is due to the presence of saponins and tannins, which both occur in the tuber flesh in the form of several chemical compounds.
1024 Dipteryx alata forbidden The request concerns the use of seeds of Dipteryx alata (‘baru nuts’). The request was submitted to the German authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, the seeds of Dipteryx alata (‘baru nuts’) are considered novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Dipteryx alata seeds (‘baru nuts’).
95 Distictis lactiflora forbidden pega palo, bignonia kremowa (PL), Distikts (LV)||Belongs to the Bignoniacceae Family. Native to Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Liogier H.A. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands Vol. 4. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR. 1995: .p 617). Pega Palo is a climbing woody vine that clings to objects by means of sticky disks and may extend 6m or more into the crowns of trees or laterally along rocks and fences (Acevedo Rodriguez 1985).
96 Distictis rigescens unknown see Distictis lactiflora
800 Dolichos lablab unknown see Lablab purpureus
801 Dolichos purpureus unknown see Lablab purpureus
790 Durio zibethinus authorized Common Durian (EN), Durio (BG), Durian (DK, FI, IT, NO, PL, SE), Doerian (NL), Durian, stinkfrucht, Zibetbaum (DE), Durio, dourian (FR), Dáraaldin (IS), Durião (PT), Arbol Durián (ES)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant list) concerns only the use of fruits (botanically berries) of Durio zibethinus. The durian is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio and the Bombacaceae (or Malvaceae) family. It is native to Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia, has been known to the Western world for about 600 years. Durian is widely known and revered in southeast Asia as the "king of fruits", and is distinctive for its large size, unique odour, and formidable thorn-covered husk. The fruit can grow as large as 30 centimetres (12 in) long and 15 centimetres (6 in) in diameter, and it typically weighs one to three kilograms (2 to 7 lb). Its shape ranges from oblong to round, the colour of its husk green to brown, and its flesh pale yellow to red, depending on the species. The edible flesh emits a distinctive odour, strong and penetrating even when the husk is intact. Some people regard the durian as fragrant; others find the aroma overpowering and offensive. There are 30 recognised Durio species, at least nine of which produce edible fruit. Durio zibethinus is the only species available in the international market: other species are sold in their local regions.
97 Echinacea purpureae food_supplement Purple cone flower (EN), purperen rubbeckia (NL), Equinácea (PT), jeżówka purpurowa (PL), punahattu (FIN), Purpur-Sonnenhut (DE), punane siilkübar (ET), třapatka nachová (CZ), bíbor kasvirág (HU), Εχινάκεια (EL), havepurpursolhat (DK), Purpura ehinācija (LV), ehinaceja (SL), Röd stormhatt (SE)||The plant originates from North America and belongs to the Asteraceae Family. There are nine species of Echinacea. The three species most commonly found in herb products are Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea and E. pallida. These three species have in common some constituents examined by HPLC: echinacoside, polysaccharides, glycoproteins and a caffeic acid derivatives (cichoric acid).
98 Ecklonia bicyclis authorized Arame (DE), eisenia (PL), arame (FI) (CZ) (DK), arame tengeri alga (HU), vrsta alge (SL)||Ecklonia bicyclis Kjellman is a brown algae belonging to the Lessoniaceae family. Synonym: Eisenia bicyclis
1001 Egg membrane authorized Public information: The request concerns egg membrane derived from the eggshell membranes of chicken eggs. It is not considered novel
1000 Egg membrane hydrolysate forbidden Egg membrane hydrolysate derived from the eggshell membranes of chicken eggs is considered novel food and was authorised by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/1647 of 31 October 2018 authorising the placing on the market of egg membrane hydrolysate as a novel food under Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council and amending Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/2470 .
624 Eleocharis dulcis authorized čínský vodní kaštan (CZ), Chinese water chestnut, water chestnut, matting reed (EN), Vandkastanje (DK), Vesikastanja (FI), Chataigne d’eau de Chine (FR), Wasserkastanie, Chinesische Wassernuss (DE), Hnetuskúfur, Vatnakastanía (IS), Giunchina Americana (IT), Knollsivaks, vannkastanje (NO), Castanha-de-água (PT), Kasztan wodny (PL), Castaña de agua (ES), Vattenkastanj (SE), Blatnica (BG), Waterkastanje (NL)||The edible part of the Eleocharis dulcis is the root (tuber, corm). The Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis; synonyms E. equisetina, E. indica, E. plantaginea, E. plantaginoides, E. tuberosa, E. tumida), more often called simply the water chestnut, is a grass-like sedge grown for its edible corms. It has tube-shaped, leafless green stems that grow to about 1.5 metres. The water caltrop, which is also referred to by the same name, is unrelated and often confused with the water chestnut. The Chinese water chestnut is native to China and is widely cultivated in flooded paddy fields in southern China and parts of the Philippines. It belongs to the plant family Cyperaceae. The water chestnut is actually not a nut at all, but an aquatic vegetable that grows in marshes.
135 Eleutherococcus senticosus food_supplement Siberian ginseng (EN), Eleuterococo (PT) (ES), Ginseng siberiano (ES) (PT), venäjänjuuri (FIN), sibirischer Ginseng (DE), harilik eleuterokokk (ET), sibiřský ženšen (CZ), tajgagyökér (HU), Σιβηρικό τζίνσενγκ (EL), russisk rod (DK), Eleitorokoks (LV), elevterokok, sibirski ženšen (SL), Eleuterokok kolczasty, Żeń-szeń suberyjski (PL), rysk rot (SE)||Belongs to the Araliaceae Family. Native to south-eastern part of Russia, northern China, Korea and Japan.
136 Emblica officinalis food_supplement Indian Gooseberry (EN), Emblica, liściokwiat garbnikowy (PL), Intian karviaismarja (FI), Amlabaum (DE), Amalaki õislehik (ET), Emblika lékařská, Amalaki (CZ), Mirobalano (ES), Indiai egres, Amla (HU, FI), Grå myrobalan (DK), Emblika (LV), Indijska kosmulja (SL), Emblika lekarska, Mietobolan lekarski (PL), Phyllanthus emblica, Aamla||Emblica officinalis (Indian Gooseberry) is a tree which grows in subtropical and tropical parts of China, India, Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula.
396 Empetrum nigrum authorized Šicha černá (CZ), Variksenmarja (FI), Camarine noire (FR), Водяника (RU), ガンコウラン (クラウベリー) (JP), Black Crowberry, Crowberry (EN), Kråkbär (SE), Krähenbeere (DE)||Crowberry (Empetrum) is a small genus of dwarf evergreen shrubs that bear edible fruit. They are commonly found in the northern hemisphere, from temperate to subarctic climates, and also in the Andes of South America and on Tristan da Cunha (South Atlantic Ocean). The typical habitat is on moorlands, tundra and muskeg, but also in spruce forests. They are also found abundantly on the dune slacks and sand dunes of the Danish Island of Fanø as well as all over Iceland. The black crowberry, Empetrum nigrum, is a 10–30 cm tall shrub with overwintering, unstalked leaves which are 3–7 mm in length, needle-like and hollow. The underside of the leaf is split by a light-coloured line. The flowers of the crowberry are red, axillary, and bloom in May–June. The berry itself is a glossy black drupe. Crowberries can be made into a delicious juice by themselves, or used for a mixed berry juice together with bilberries, alpine bearberries, bog bilberries and blackcurrants. The mild flavour and bluish-purple colour it adds to food make it a suitable raw ingredient for baked goods, berry soups, porridges and milkshakes, either on its own or combined with other berries. Crowberries can also be used to make jam, jelly or marmalade.
1040 Emu oil forbidden The request concerns the oil derived from the adipose tissue of certain subspecies of the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae. The emu oil is considered as novel food.
564 Enteromorpha sp. authorized A distinctive green algae that is in the family Ulvaceae. It is both a temperate and tropical species, abundant in different forms worldwide
137 Epimedium grandiflorum forbidden Barrenwort, Bishops Mitre, epimedium wielkokwiatowe (PL), japaninvarjohiippa (FIN), Elfenblume, Bischofsmütze (DE), suureõieline epimeedium (ET), škornice velkokvětá (CZ), püspöksüveg (HU), Epimēdija (LV), vrsta vimčka (SL)||Perennial plant which originates in Japan, North Korea and China.
397 Epimedium macranthum unknown see Epimedium grandiflorum
138 Equisetum arvense food_supplement Field Horsetail, Common Horsetail (EN), Zinnkraut (DE), Prêle des champs, la prele (FR), Heermoes (NL), Cavalinha (PT), Skrzyp polny (PL), Peltokorte (FI), Põldosi (ET), Přeslička rolní (CZ), Cola de caballo (ES), Mezei zsúrló (HU), ίππουρις / πολυκόμπι (EL), Ager-padderok (DK), Tīruma kosa (LV), Njivska preslica (SL), Åkerfräken, rävsvans, rävrumpa (SE)||The use of the aerial parts of Equisetum arvense (Field Horsetail) is known in food supplements and as an ingredient of tea in the EU before 15 May 1997. Equisetum arvense, the Field Horsetail or Common Horsetail, is a herbaceous perennial plant, native throughout the arctic and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. It belongs to the plant family Equisetaceae. It has separate sterile non-reproductive and fertile spore-bearing stems, growing from a perennial underground rhizomatous stem system. The fertile stems are produced in early spring and are non-photosynthetic, while the green sterile stems start to grow after the fertile stems have wilted, and persist through the summer until the first autumn frosts. The sterile stems are 10–90 cm tall and 3–5 mm diameter, with jointed segments around 2–5 cm long with whorls of side shoots at the segment joints; the side shoots have a diameter of about 1 mm. Some stems can have as many as 20 segments. The fertile stems are succulent-textured, off-white, 10–25 cm tall and 3–5 mm diameter, with 4–8 whorls of brown scale leaves, and an apical brown spore cone 10–40 mm long and 4–9 mm broad.
614 Eragrostis tef authorized teff, lovegrass||The use of the seeds of Eragrostis tef is not novel. Eragrostis tef is a species of Eragrostis (lovegrass) native to the northern Ethiopian Highlands and Eritrean Highlands of the Horn of Africa. It is an an annual cereal grain which can be cultivated in a wide range of conditions, from marginal soils to drought conditions.
139 Eriobotrya japonica authorized Lokvát, Mišpule japonská (CZ), Loquat, Japanese medlar (EN), Iaponska mushmula (BG), Japanmispel (DK), Loquat (NL, NO), Japaninmispeli (FI), Bibassier, néflier du Japon (FR), Japanische Mispel, Japanische Wollmispel, Japanische Loquat (DE), Musmulia (GR), Dúnepli, Japansplóma (IS), Nespolo del Giappone (IT), Nespereira (PT), Kosmatka japonska (PL), Níspero japonés (ES), Japansk mispel (SE)||The edible part of Eriobotrya japonica is the fruit (pome). It is an evergreen large shrub or small tree, with a rounded crown, short trunk and woolly new twigs that belongs to the plant family Rosaceae (Malaceae). The tree can grow to 5-10 m tall, but is often smaller, about 3-4 m. The leaves are alternate, simple, 10-25 cm long, dark green, tough and leathery in texture, with a serrated margin, and densely velvety-hairy below with thick yellow-brown pubescence the young leaves are also densely pubescent above, but this soon rubs off. Loquats are unusual among fruit trees in that the flowers appear in the autumn or early winter, and the fruits are ripe in late winter or early spring. In Northern California, loquats bear fruit in May. The flowers are 2 cm diameter, white, with five petals, and produced in stiff panicles of three to ten flowers. The flowers have a sweet, heady aroma that can be smelled from a distance. Loquat fruits, growing in clusters, are oval, rounded or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long, with a smooth or downy, yellow or orange, sometimes red-blushed skin. The succulent, tangy flesh is white, yellow or orange and sweet to subacid or acid, depending on the cultivar. Each fruit contains five ovules, of which three to five mature into large brown seeds. The skin, though thin, can be peeled off manually if the fruit is ripe.
140 Eruca sativa authorized Eruca, ervafedorenta, rábanosilvestre, rúcula (PT), rokietta siewna (PL), Rukola (PL, ET, HU, SL), Põld-võõrkapsas (ET), Roketa setá (CZ), Rúcula, oruga, ruca, roqueta (ES), ρόκα (EL), Salatsennep, rucola (DK), Sējas pazvērīte (LV), Senapskål, rucola (SE), Brassica eruca, Roman rocket, rocket salad (EN), Rucola (NL), Sinappikaali, rukola (FI), Roquette (FR), Rucola, Rauke, Senfrauke, Feld-Raukensenf, Ölrauke, Gartenrauke, Rukola (DE), Eruka (BG), Roca (GR), Klettasalat (IS), Rucchettone, senapa bianca – rucola (IT), Salatsennep, ruccola (NO)||The edible parts of Eruca sativa are the leaves. Belongs to the Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) family. Arugula is a collective name for a number of species of the Brassicaceae with pungent leaves, but principally Eruca sativa. It is a low-growing annual. In various Mediterranean countries it is cultivated as a salad green or cooked vegetable. (Morales, M. and J. Janick. Arugula: A promising specialty leaf vegetable.2002).
299 Ethyl esters (concentrated from fish oils) food_supplement Ésteres de etilo (concentrado a partir de óleo de peixe) (PT), skoncentrowane estry etylowe oleji rybich (PL), etyyliesterit (FIN), Ethylester (Konzentrat aus Fischöl) (DE), etüülestrid (kontsenteeritud kalaõlidest) (ET), etylestery (CZ), Ésteres de etilo (concentrado a partir de aceite de pescado) (ES), etil-észeterek (HU), Etilesteri (koncentrēti no zivju eļļām) (LV), etil estri iz ribjega olja (SL)||The long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are characteristic of marine fat and commonly occur in triacylglycerols and phospholipids of fish. Effects of marine fat are known and almost exclusively attributed to the most ubiquitous of the n-3 fatty acids in fish which are EPA (C20:5n-3) and DHA (C22:6n-3) both originating from the polynsaturated alpha-linolenic fatty acid (ALA 18:3n-3).
141 Eugenia floribunda unknown see Myrciaria floribunda
793 Eugenia michelii unknown see Eugenia uniflora
792 Eugenia uniflora authorized Surinam Cherry, Brazilian Cherry, Cayenne Cherry (EN), Eugenia michelii, Bahar (BG), Pitanga (DK), Surinaamse kers (NL), Surinaminkirsikka (FI), Cerisier de Cayenne, cerisier carré (FR), Pitanga, Surinamkirsche, Kirschmyrte (DE), Garufalo (GR), Brasilíukirsuber (IS), Mirto (IT), Eugeniabær (NO), Pitangueira, Pitanga (PT), Eugenia jednokwiatowa (PL), Cerezo de Cayena, pitanga, nagapìry (ES), Körsbärsmyrten (SE)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of fruits (botanically berries) of Eugenia uniflora. The Surinam Cherry, Brazilian Cherry, or Cayenne Cherry (Eugenia uniflora) is a plant in the family Myrtaceae, native to tropical America. Known as Pitanga throughout Brazil or Ñangapirí in surrounding countries, it is a large shrub or small tree with a conical form, growing slowly to 8 meters in height. The leaves are glossy green, up to 4 cm long, and new leaves are copper-colored. Fragrant white flowers mature into reddish fruits up to 2 cm in diameter. The taste ranges from sweet to sour, depending on the cultivar and level of ripeness (the darker red to black range is quite sweet, while the green to orange range is strikingly tart). The Surinam Cherry is often used in gardens as a hedge or screen. The fruit is high in Vitamin C, and its predominant food use is as a flavoring and base for jams and jellies. The tree was introduced to Bermuda for ornamental purposes but is out of control, and is now listed as invasive in Bermuda.
142 Euphausia superba forbidden Antarctic krill (EN), kryl antarktyczny (PL), antarktinen krilli (FI), Krill (DE) (SE), tavaline hiigelvähk (ET), krunýřovka krilová (CZ), Krill antártico (ES), antarktiszi rák (HU), Antarktīdas krils (LV)||Small translucent shrimp-like crustaceans commonly known as krill. The genus name Euphausia refers to the luminescence produced by large light organs. Euphausia superba is found around Antarctica and reaches a maximum length of five centimeters and a weight of 1 g.The request concerns the oil from Antarctic krill.
143 Eurycoma longifolia forbidden Tongkat Ali (DE), żeńszeń malezyjski (PL), eurykoma (PL), malajský ženšen (CZ), Garlapu eurikoma (LV)||Eurycoma longifolia (Simaroubaceae Family) is a small tree to 15 m high. It originates from South East Asia, including Indonesia, Malay Peninsula, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.
144 Euterpe edulis unknown see Euterpe oleracea
145 Euterpe oleracea authorized Mart, Assai palm, Acai palm, pinapalm (NL), açaí (PT), euterpa warzywna (PL), salat-euterpepalm (ET), palma euterpe (CZ), ázsiai pálma (HU), Ασάι (EL), assaipalme (DK)||Belongs to the Arecaceae (Palmae) Family. Origin: Eastern Amazon and Guineas, northern Brazil, Venezuela and Trinidad in flooded areas. The fruit is a berry, 1.5 cm in diameter, green turning dark green purple or black at complete maturity. It is highly valued in Amazon for use in wine or as a juice.
981 Evodia lepta forbidden The request concerns the use of leaves of Evodia lepta Merr. The request was submitted to the Estonian authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, the leaves of Evodia lepta are considered novel food.The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Chrysanthemum morifolium
642 Feijoa sellowiana unknown See Acca sellowiana.
1016 Fermented wheat germ extract forbidden The request concerns the use of fermented wheat germ extract. The request was submitted to the Hungarian authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, fermented wheat germ extract is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry: fermented wheat germ extract
146 Ferula hermonis pending zapaliczka (PL), pirunpihka (FI), Zalou (DE)||Ferula hermonis belongs to the Umbelliferae Family. Its natural habitat is in south-east Lebanon on the sides of tha Mount Hermon close to the borders of Lebanon, Syria and Israel. The key part of the plant is the root.
1005 Ferulic acid food_supplement 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, IUPAC name: (E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)prop-2-enoic acid||Ferulic acid is not considered as novel food in food supplements.
147 Festuca arundinacea forbidden Tall fescue (EN), Fétuque, rietzwenkgras (NL), kostrzewa trzcinowa (PL), ruokonata (FIN), Rohrschwingel (DE), roog-aruhein (ET), kostřava rákosovitá (CZ), nádképű csenkesz (HU), strandsvingel (DK), Niedru auzene (LV), trstikasta bilnica (SL), Rörsvingel, vallsvingel (SE)||Plant belonging to the Poaceae Family. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution, though with the majority of the species in cool temperate areas. The genus is closely related to ryegrass (Lolium) and is incorporated within that genus by some botanists.
1021 Ficus carica forbidden The request concerns aqueous extract from fig (Ficus carica) L. leaves. According to the conclusion reached by German Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) in response to a request submitted pursuant to the requirements of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/456 (https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en) on the procedural steps of the consultation process for determination of novel food status, aqueous extract from fig (Ficus carica) L. leaves is novel. As it belongs to one of the categories of Article (3)(2)(a)(iv) of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 on novel foods an authorization under the Novel Food Regulation is required before it can be placed on the market in the EU as a food. The product is not novel only when used as or in food supplements
524 Foeniculum vulgare authorized Fennel (EN), Fenykl obecný (CZ), Kryddfänkål, Sötfänkål (SE), Resene (BG), Sød Fennikel, Knoldfennikel (DK), Venkel, Knolvenkel (NL), Fenkoli (FI), Fenouil (FR), Fenchel, Gemüse-Fenchel (DE), Marathos (GR), Fennika, Fennill (IS), Finocchio selvatico (IT), Fennikel (NO), Funcho, Figueira (PT), Fenkul, koper wloski, Korzen kopru wloskiego (PL), Hinojo, hinojo de Florencia (ES)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the use of leaves (petiole), fruits (schizocarp) and shoots of Foeniculum vulgare. In addition the aerial parts of fennel are authorized in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a plant species in the genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by most botanists). It is a member of the family Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae). It is a hardy, perennial, umbelliferous herb, with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is generally considered indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean, but has become widely naturalised elsewhere.
149 Fucus nodosus unknown see Ascophyllum nodosum L.
953 Fucus serratus authorized EN: Serrated wrack, Saw Wrack, Toothed Wrack , SE: Sågtång, Irish: Dúlamán, Múrach dhubh||It is an alga, olive-brown in colour and similar to Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus spiralis.It grows from a discoid holdfast up to 180 centimetres long
950 Fucus spiralis authorized EN: Jelly bags, Spiral wrack, Flat wrack||Fucus spiralis is a brown alga and similar to Fucus vesiculosus. It grows to about 30 cm long and branches somewhat irregularly dichotomous and is attached, generally to rock, by a discoid holdfast.
557 Fucus vesiculosus authorized DE: Blasentang, NL: Fucus, Blaaswier, FR: Fucus, Varech vésiculeux, EN: Red fucus, Dyers fucus, Bladderwrack, Swine tang, Sea ware , FI: Rakkolevä, SE: Blåstång, PT: Trambolho, Estalos, Esgalhota, Bagão, Limbo-bexiga||It is a seaweed found commonly on the coasts of the North Sea, the western Baltic Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The fronds of F. vesiculosus grow to 90 centimetres long and 2.5 centimetres wide and have a prominent midrib throughout.
993 Ganoderma lucidum (dehydrated mycelium powder) forbidden The request concerns the use of Ganoderma lucidum dehydrated mycelium powder. The request was submitted to the Spanish authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Ganoderma lucidum dehydrated mycelium powder is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Ganoderma lucidum dehydrated mycelium powder
151 Ganoderma lucidum (mushroom) authorized Reishi (PT), lakownica lśniąca (PL), lakkakääpä (FIN), glänzender Lackporling (DE), läikvaabik (ET), lesklokorka leská (CZ), pecsétviasz gomba (HU), skinnende laksporesvamp (DK), Lakas plakanpiepe (LV), goba reishi (SL)||Belongs to the Basidiomycotina class of fungi.
152 Garcinia cambogia authorized CitrinGambooge, guttagomboom (NL), guttier (FR), Garcínia (PT), tamaryndowiec malabarski (PL), Malabar Tamarinde (DE), garcinie kambodžská (CZ), Tamarindo malabar (ES), malabar tamarind (DK), Kambodžas garsīnija (LV), vrsta garcinije (SL)||Exotic fruit (Clusiaceae Family) grown in South India, has been used to impart a distinctive sour flavour to Indian cooking.
153 Garcinia mangostana authorized Mangosteen (EN), Mangostan (CZ, DK, NO, SE), Mangoustan du Malabar, mangoustanier (FR), Mangustão, mangusto, mangosteiro (PT), Mangostan właściwy (PL), Mangostani (FI), Mangostane (DE), Mangostanipuu (harilik gartsiinia) (ET), Mangostán (ES), Mangosztán (HU), Malaizijas mangostīns (LV), Vrsta garcinije (SL), Mangustan (BG), Manggistan, Mangostan (NL), Mangó (IS), Mangostana (IT)||The edible part of mangosteen is the fruit (berry). Another request concerned mangosteen peel. Mangosteen peel may have to be considered as a novel food. Plant belonging to the Guttiferae Family. The tropical fruit is also known as mangosteen and should not be confused with another exotic fruit known as Mango of the plant Mangifera indica. Mangosteen is well distributed in South East Asia, where the crop originated and the major producing countries are Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia (Yaacob O et al. Mangosteen cultivation. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 1995.129.FAO.Rome).
154 Gentianella alborosea pending Hercampuri, Té de Chavin (FR), goryczuszka białoróżowa (PL), hořeček bělorůžový (CZ), vrsta sviščevca (SL), Gentiana-art (SE)||Plant belonging to the Gentianaceae Family native to Peruvian Andes.
729 Gigantochloa albociliata authorized Oxytenanthera albociliata, Bambu (FI), Bambou (FR), Calami babu (GR), Bambusreyr (IS), Bambù tropicale (IT), Bambú (PT, ES), Grönsaksbambu (SE), Bamboo, bamboo cane (EN), Bambuk (BG), Bambus (DK, DE, NO, PL), Bamboe (NL)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the stem (botanically immature shoot) of Gigantochloa albociliata. Gigantochloa albociliata or Oxytenanthera albociliata is one of the edible bamboo species. Gigantochloa is a tropical genus of giant clumping bamboo, similar to the genus Bambusa. It belongs to the plant family Poaceae (Gramineae) and is found in Southeast Asia.
730 Gigantochloa levis authorized Bambus (DK, DE, NO, PL), Bambù (IT), Bambusreyr (IS), Calami babu (GR), Bambou (FR), Bambu (FI), Bamboo, bamboo cane (EN), Bambuk (BG), Bamboe (NL), Bambusa levis, Bambú (PT, ES), Grönsaksbambu (SE)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the stem (botanically immature shoot) of Gigantochloa levis. Gigantochloa levis or Bambusa levis is one of the edible bamboo species. Gigantochloa is a tropical genus of giant clumping bamboo, similar to the genus Bambusa. It belongs to the plant family Poaceae (Gramineae) and is found in Southeast Asia.
156 Ginkgo biloba authorized Ginkgo (DE), miłorząb japoński (PL), miłorząb dwuklapowy (PL), neidonhiuspuu (FI), hõlmikpuu (ET), jinan dvoulaločný (CZ), Arbol de los cuarenta escudos (ES), páfrányfenyő (HU), τζίνκο μπιλόμπα / τζίνκο το δίλοβο (EL), tempeltræ (DK), Divdaivu ginks (LV), ginko, dvokrpi ginkovec (SL), Ginko (SE)||The request concerns the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Vague information about uses of other parts of the plant or ingredients derived from Ginko biloba would require confirmation. Ginkgo biloba belongs to the Ginkgoaceae Family and is native to the south-east of China. The name Ginkgo (or Gingko) comes from the Chinese name yin kuo, which means silver fruit.
157 Globba nutans Redoute unknown see Alpinia speciosa
300 Glucosamine sulphate food_supplement Glucosamina sulfato (ES), glükózamin-szulfát (HU), θειϊκή γλυκοζαμίνη (EL), Glukozamīna sulfāts (LV), glukozamin sulfat (SL), siarczan glukozaminy (PL), Sulfato di glucosamina (PT), glukosamiinisulfaatti (FI), Glucosaminsulfat (DE), glükoosamiinsulfaat (ET), glukosaminsulfát (CZ)||Glucosamine is the most fundamental building block required for biosynthesis of the classes of compounds including glycolipids, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans (formerly called mucopolysaccharides), hyaluronate, and proteoglycans. As a component of these macromolecules, glucosamine has a role in the synthesis of cell membrane lining, collagen, osteoid, and bone matrix. Glucosamine is also required for the formation of lubricants and protective agents such as mucin and mucous secretions.
160 Gossypium sp. authorized Cotton, Sea island cotton, Levant cotton, Upland cotton (EN), Baumwolle (Neuwelt-Art, Altwelt-Art, Neuwelt-Art) (DE), Katoen, Katoenplant, Oosters katoen, Behaarde katoen (NL), Bawełna, Bawelna zachodnio indyjska, Bawelna indyjska, Bawelna amerykanska (PL), Algodoeiro, Algodão (PT), Puuvillapõõsas (ET), Bavlník (CZ), Puuvilla, puuvillapensas (FI), Algodón de América del Sur, Algodonero, Algodón, Algodón mejicano (ES), Gyapot (HU), βαμβάκι (EL), Bomuld, Vestindisk Bomuld, Almindelig Bomuld, Indisk Bomuld (DK), Kokvilna (LV), Bombaž (SL), Bomull, Västindisk bomull, Indisk bomull, Texasbomull (SE), Pamuk, Islandski pamuk, Pamuchnik (BG), Coton, Cotonnier, Coton mexicain (FR), Strandbaðmull, Hærubaðmull (nýyrði...) (IS), Cotone, Olio di cotone (IT), Bomullsplante (NO)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the use of seed (capsule) oil from cotton derives from Gossypium barbadese, Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium hirsutum. Gossypium species belong to the Malvaceae Family. It is cultivated in warm arid climates and requires deep soil. The most important countries for production are China, USA, Russia, India, Pakistan, Turkey and Egypt. This important crop produces not only lint that is used for cloth but also a variety of nutrition products such as oils, cottonseed meal and hulls for consumers and livestock. Cottonseeds contain gossypol, a naturally occurring pigment protecting the plant. This polyphenolic compound is of toxicological concern. The seeds of Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium hirsutum are known to be used in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements).
562 Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) authorized It is a red alga that is widely distributed in seaside areas of many countries
647 Griffonia simplicifolia pending Griffonia simplicifolia (syn. Bandeiraea simplicifolia Benth.) is a woody climbing shrub native to West Africa and Central Africa. The seeds of Griffonia simplicifolia are considered not novel in food supplements.
994 Grifola frondosa (dehydrated mycelium powder) forbidden The request concerns the use of Grifola frondosa dehydrated mycelium powder. The request was submitted to the Spanish authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Grifola frondosa dehydrated mycelium powder is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Grifola frondosa dehydrated mycelium powder
161 Grifola frondosa (mushroom) authorized Maitake (DE), Żagwica listkowata (PL), leht-kobartorik (ET)||Mushroom that grows in the mountains of northeastern Japan, North America and Europe.
162 Gypsophila struthium pending Egyptian soapwort root (EN), łyszczec (egipski korzeń mydlany) (PL), Seifenkraut (DE), šater (CZ), puuvilla (FI), Gisofila (ES), egyiptomi szappanfű (HU), Ēģiptiešu ziepjusakne (LV), vrsta sadrenke (SL), såpört (SE), hispaania kipslill (ET)||Perennial plant belonging to the Caryophyllaceae Family.
163 Hamamelis virginiana food_supplement NL: Virginische toverhazelaar, FR: Hamamélis de Virginie, EN: Witch-hazel, FI: Amerikantaikapähkinä , DE: Virginische Zaubernuss, Herbstblühende Zaubernuss, Virginischer Zauberstrauch||Leaves and bark/rind of Hamamelis virginiana are used in food supplements. Leaf: Alternate, simple, broadly ovate to obovate, 3 to 6 inches long, inequilateral, wavy margin (nearly dentate), petiole pubescent, dark green above and paler below. Flower: Monoecious bright yellow, with 4, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, very slender petals (look like yellow spiders on plant), appearing in mid to late fall. Fruit: Woody, brown capsule, 1/2 inch long and nearly as wide, containing two shiny black seeds, 1/4 inch long, seeds are forcibly discharged when capsule splits open. Maturing in late summer and old capsules are persistent. Twig: Slender, light brown, fine pubescence light brown vegetative buds (1/3 inch) are stalked and lack scales (resemble a deer foot, they are actually a tiny folded leaf) flower buds are small, round and occur in tight clusters from short stalks. Bark: Smooth, gray to gray-brown even on very old stems. Form: A small tree or shrub with arching branches, usually growing in dense multi-stemmed clumps reaching up to 20 feet tall.
164 Harpagophytum procumbens food_supplement Devil´s Claw (EN), griffe du diable (FR), duivelsklauw (NL), Hakorośl rozesłana, Diabelski, czarci pazur (PL), hakorośl rozesłana (PL), harpago (PT), pirunkoura, harpagojuuri (FI), afrikanische Teufelskralle DE), kriipiv saatanaküüs (ET), harpagofyt ležatý (CZ), Uña del diablo (ES), ördögkarom (HU), djævleklo (DK), Harpagofīts, velna pakavs (LV), vražji krempelj (SL), harpago ört (SE)||Belongs to the Pedaliaceae Family. Devil´s claw is a native of Southern Africa. It has been used as tea by indigenous people.
678 Helianthus annuus authorized Sunflower (EN), Sonnenblume (DE), Auringonkukka, Isoauringonkukka (FI), Slunchogled (BG), Almindelig Solsikke (DK), Zonnebloem, Gewone zonnebloem (NL), Tournesol, Tournesol commun, Grand soleil (FR), Iliosporo (GR), Sólblóm (IS), Elianto, girasole (IT), Solsikke (NO), Girassol (PT), Slonecznik (PL), Girasol (ES), Solros (SE)||According to information available the use of flowers and seed oil from the fruit (achene) of Helianthus annuus are known as food in the EU before 15 May 1997. In addition the use of leaves, flower buds and seeds of sunflower are authorized in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) is an annual plant native to Central America that possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head). It belongs to the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The sunflower got its name from its huge, fiery blooms, whose shape and image is often used to depict the sun. The sunflower has a rough, hairy stem, broad, coarsely toothed, rough leaves and circular heads of flowers. The heads consist of 1,000-2,000 individual flowers joined together by a receptacle base. Sunflowers most commonly grow to heights between 1.5 and 3.5 m (5–12 ft). From the Americas, sunflower seeds were brought to Europe in the 16th century, where, along with sunflower oil, they became a widespread cooking ingredient. Sunflower "whole seed" (fruit) are sold as a snack food, raw or after roasting in ovens, with or without salt and/or seasonings added. Sunflowers can be processed into a peanut butter alternative, sunflower butter. In Germany, it is mixed with rye flour to make "Sonnenblumenkernbrot" (literally: sunflower whole seed bread), which is quite popular in German-speaking Europe. It can also be used directly in cooking and salads. Sunflower oil, extracted from the seeds, is used for cooking, as a carrier oil and to produce margarine and biodiesel, as it is cheaper than olive oil.
945 Helix aspersa maxima authorized The request concerns the meat and the eggs of the snail
995 Hericium erinaceus (dehydrated mycelium powder) forbidden The request concerns the use of Hericium erinaceus dehydrated mycelium powder. The request was submitted to the Spanish authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Hericium erinaceus dehydrated mycelium powder is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Hericium erinaceus dehydrated mycelium powder
301 Hesperidin food_supplement hesperydyna (PL), Hesperidina (PT) (ES), hesperidiini (FI), Hesperidin (DE), hesperidiin (ET), hesperidin (CZ) (SL), heszperidin (HU), εσπεριδίνη (EL), Hespiridīns (LV)||The flavonoid hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside (glucoside) comprised of the flavanone (a class of flavonoids) hesperitin and the disaccharide rutinose. It has the molecular formula C28H34O15 and the CAS number 520-26-3.
123 Hibiscus esculentus authorized Okra (EN, FI, DK, NL, FR, IS, NO, PL, ES, DE, SE), Ketmia jadalna (PL), Hibisco (PT), Söödav muskushibisk (ET), Ibišek jedlý (CZ), Gombo (FR, IT, ES), Bámia (HU), μπάμια / όκρα (EL), Bāmijas, Okras, ēdamie hibiski (LV), Vrsta osleza (SL), Lady’s-fingers (EN), Gombaud (FR), Essbarer eibisch (DE), Gombô (PT), Quimbombó (ES), Chaucha turca (ES), Chimbobo (ES), Candiá (ES), Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, Bamia (BG, GR), Bonnet grec (FR)||The request concerned the fruits (botanically immature capsules) of Hibiscus esculentus. Annual herbaceous shrub (belonging to the Malvaceae Family) and originated in Africa. It is a tropical plant which grows best in warm climates. Today okra is popular in Africa, the Middle East, Greece, Turkey, India, the Caribbean, South America and the Southern U.S.
926 Hieracium pilosella food_supplement mouse-ear hawkweed||Hieracium pilosella a yellow-flowered species of Asteraceae, native to Europe and northern Asia. It produces single, citrus-coloured inflorescences. Hieracium pilosella has small rosettes of hairy, undivided leaves, greyish green above and hoary beneath, with a dense white coat of stellately branched hairs, and bright lemon-coloured flowers, which are borne singly on the almost leafless stems, which are only a few inches high. The flower-heads, which are about an inch in diameter, are composed of about fifty florets, the outer having a broad, purple stripe on the under side. The plant is in bloom from May to September. Synonym: Pilosella officinarum
558 Himanthalia elongata authorized Sea thong, hongweed, Buttonweed, Sea Haricots, Sea Spaghetti (EN) , Spaghetti de Mer (FR), Riementang (DE), Cintas, Cordas, Corriolas (PT), Ríseach, Ruálach, Ruánach, Imleacán cloch, Raif (Irish)||A common brown alga which is found in the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the north east Atlantic Ocean.The thallus is at first a small flattened or saucer-shaped disc up to three centimetres wide with a short stalk.
124 Hippophaë rhamnoides authorized Seabuckthorne, Sea buckthorn (EN), Gemeiner Sanddorn, Sanddorn (DE), Duindoorn (NL), Argousier, argounnier (FR), Rokitnik zwyczajny (PL), Espinheiro-maritímo (PT), Tyrni (FI), Harilik astelpaju (ET), Rakytník řešetlákový (CZ), Espino falso (ES), Homoktövis (HU), ιπποφαές το ραμνοειδές (EL), Parastais smiltsērkšķis (LV), Navadni rakitovec (SL), Havtorn (SE, DK), Облепиха (RU), シーバックソーン (スナジグミ)(JP)||Hippophaë rhamnoides (sea-buckthorn) belongs to the Elaeagnaceae family. It is native to northwestern Europe through central Asia to the Altai Mountains, western and northern China, and the northern Himalayas. The berries have been used in making juice and jam. Fruits may be picked from the bushes at any time between late autumn and early spring. Seeds may be extracted by running the wet fruits through a macerator and removing the pulp. The fruit is mentioned in directive 93/77/EC concerning fruit juice. The use of the fruits (berries), leaves and flowers of Hippophae rhamnoides is not novel.
717 Hirneola polytricha unknown see Auricularia polytricha
125 Hizikia fusiforme authorized Hiziki (DE), hizikia (PL), hijuki-merilevä (FI), hiziki (CZ) (DK), OKAMURA alga (HU), Hizikia fusiforme, hijiki (LV), vrst alge (SL), ALGA HIJIKI (PT)||Dark brown, bushy algae that grows in the pristine coastal arctic current seas off the eastern shore of Japan.
126 Hoodia gordonii forbidden Hoodia cactus, hoodia (PL), hoodia kaktus (FI) (CZ), Hoodia (DE) (PT), Hoodia kaktusz (HU), Hūdija kaktuss (LV), kaktus Hoodia (SL), salendav hoodia (ET)||Hoodia is a genus of the Asclepiadaceae Family. There are approximately 20 species in the genus. The unusual flowers are flat and saucer-like in shape and red, purple to brown or mottled dark yellow in colour. The short stems are angled with white spikes.
590 Hordeum vulgare authorized Barley (EN), Gerste (DE), Ječmen (CZ), Ohra (FI), Cevada (PT), Echmik (BG), Almindelig Byg, Toradet Byg, Seksradet Byg (DK), Gerst (NL), Orge (FR), Crithari (GR), Bygg, Bankabygg (IS), Orzo (IT), Bygg, toradersbygg (NO), Jeczmien (PL), Cebada (ES), Tvåradskorn, Korn (SE)||Barley has been used as food within the EU before 15 May 1997.Hordeum vulgare (barley) is of a major commercial importance as a cereal grain, used as fodder crop and for malting in beer and whiskey production. It belongs to the plant family Poaceae (Gramineae). Some species are nuisance weeds introduced world-wide by human activities others endangered due to habitat loss. The request concerns the juice and powders therefore obtained from the grass of Hordeum vulgare (barley)
127 Hovenia dulcis forbidden Japanese Raisintree (EN), Jiguja, Japanse krentenboom (NL), szypulatka słodka (PL), japanischer Rosinenbaum (DE), magus kompvekipuu (ET), Hovenia, vid japonesa (ES), japán mazsolafa (HU), Japānas rozīņkoks (LV), Uva-japonesa (PT)||Japanese Raisintree which belongs to the Rhamnaceae Family. Native to China its cultivation spread long ago to Japan, Korea and India.
974 Humic acid food_supplement Humic acid has been used in food supplements before 15 May 1997. Therefore, it is not novel in food supplements
759 Hydnum repandum authorized Wood hedgehog, Hedgehog mushroom (EN), Vaaleaorakas (FI), Blek taggsvamp (SE), Stoppelschwamm (DE), L'hydne bosselé (FR)||Hydnum repandum, commonly known as the Wood Hedgehog or Hedgehog mushroom, is an edible basidiomycete mushroom of the family Hydnaceae. It is notable for its spore-bearing structures which are shaped like teeth rather than gills. It is broadly distributed in North America and Europe and found singly or in groups in coniferous or deciduous woodland. Hyndum repandum is a fairly common species, and is found on the ground in both coniferous and deciduous forests. The hedgehog mushroom is considered to be a good edible, having a sweet, nutty taste and a crunchy texture. Older specimens may have a mildly bitter taste; thorough cooking may remove the bitter taste of older specimens, and all specimens should be cooked well so as to avoid bitter taste.
129 Hydrocotyle asiática unknown see Centella asiatica
303 Hydroxy Citric Acid food_supplement HCA, kwas hydroksycytrynowy (PL), sól wapniowa kwasu hydroksycytrynowego (PL), hydroksisitruunahappo (FIN), Hydroxycitronensäure (DE), hüdroksüsidrunhape (ET), kyselina hydroxycitronová (CZ), Ácido hidroxicítrico (ES) (PT), hidroxi-citromsav (HU), υδροξυ-κιτρικό οξύ (EL), Hidroksicitronskābe (LV), kalcijeva sol hidroksicitronske kisline (SL)||Calcium salt of (-)hydroxycitric acid
753 Hygrophorus camarophyllus authorized Arched woodwax (EN), Mustavahakas (FI), Sotvaxing (SE), Russbrauner schneckling (DE), Hygrophore des Chèvres (FR)||Hygrophorus is a genus of agarics (gilled mushrooms) in the family Hygrophoraceae. Called "woodwaxes" in the UK or "waxy caps" (together with Hygrocybe species) in North America, basidiocarps (fruit bodies) are typically fleshy, often with slimy caps and lamellae that are broadly attached to decurrent. All species are ground-dwelling and ectomycorrhizal (forming an association with living trees) and are typically found in woodland. Around 100 species are currently recognized worldwide. Fruit bodies of several species are considered edible and are sometimes offered for sale in local markets. The cap of Hygrophorus camarophyllus is 2-7cm across, bluntly convex, slightly knobbed or flat with an umbo; browny gray with fine dark lines; sticky when wet, then dry and smooth, with a downy margin. Gills are adnate, close to subdistant, moderately broad, very waxy; white or slightly grayish. The stem is 25-130 x 10-20mm; pale, smoky gray-brown; silky with fine hairs near the top, smooth and hairless toward base. The flesh is thick, fragile and white. The odor is slight, faintly of coal tar and the taste is mild. Spores are ellipsoid, 7-9 x 4-5µ and the deposit white. Habitat is from scattered to gregarious. Hygrophorus camarophyllus is edible.
665 Hylocereus megalanthus authorized yellow pitahaya (EN), gelbe Pitaya (DE), gelbe Pitahaya (DE), gul pitahaya (SE), yellow pitaya (EN), Selenicereus magalanthus, keltainen lohikäärmehedelmä (FI), yellow dragon fruit (EN), keltainen pitaya (FI), Cereus megalanthus||The request concerns the fruit of Hylocereus megalanthus. Hylocereus megalanthus (yellow pitaya, formerly in Selenicereus) is a cactus species native to northern South America. It belongs to the genus Hylocereus (sweet pitayas). The yellow pitaya has yellow-skinned fruit with white flesh and is grown commercially e.g. in Colombia for its fruit.
131 Hylocereus undatus authorized Pitahaya, Hylocereus falowaty, lohikäärmehedelmä (FI), pitaya (FI), Drachenfrucht (DE), maasik-metskaktus (ET), pitahaya (CZ) (ES), opuncie (CZ), Cactus trepador (ES), Pitahaja kaktusz (HU), Pitahaija (LV), pitahaya kaktus (SE), Pitaya vermelha (PT)||Hylocereus is a climbing cacti native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico and Central and South America. The fruit of these plants is also known as ´pitahaya´ which is however a common name applying to a broad variety of warm-climate cacti fruits. These fruits have a white spongy pulp with small black seeds and thick skin red or pink.Only the use of the fruits of Hylocereus undatus as food or food ingredient is known in the EU.
130 Hypoxis hemerocallidea unknown see Hypoxis roperi
132 Hypoxis rooperi forbidden African potato (EN), przyklęk (PL), tähtiheinä (FIN), Hypoxis (DE), africký brambor (CZ), Āfrikas kartupelis (LV), afriški krompir (SL)||The plant (Hypoxidaceae Family) is a potato-like bulb much like a lily, with a yellow flower.
796 Hyssopus officinalis authorized Hisopo (ES), Hyssop, Herb Hyssop (EN), Isop (BG, NO, SE), Ægte Isop (DK), Hysop, hyssop (NL), Iisoppi (FI), Hysope (FR), Ysop (DE), Yssopos (GR), Ísópur (IS), Issopo (IT), Erva-sagrada, hissopo (PT), Hyzop lekarski (PL)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the use of leaves and shoots (young shoots) of Hyssopus officinalis. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. According to the Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements the use of aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis is authorized. Herb Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis aka Hyssopus decumbens) is an herbaceous plant of the genus Hyssopus (plant family Lamiaceae (Labiatae)) native to Southern Europe, the Middle East, and the region surrounding the Caspian Sea. Herb hyssop leaves are used as an aromatic condiment. The leaves have a lightly bitter taste due to its tannins, and an intense minty aroma. Due to its intensity, it is used moderately in cooking. The herb is also used to flavor liqueur, and is part of the official formulation of Chartreuse.
982 Ilex asprella forbidden The request concerns the use of root of Ilex asprella (Hook.& Arn.) Champ. ex Benth. The request was submitted to the Estonian authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, the root of Ilex asprella is considered novel food.The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Ilex asprella (Hook.& Arn.) Champ. ex Benth.
133 Ilex kudingcha pending Ku Ding Cha, ostrokrzew (PL), Järneks släkting (SE)||Herb which belongs to the Aquifoliaceae Family. One of the main growing locations for Ilex is in the southwestern of China but also throughout southern and central China and Vietnam.
797 Ilex paraguariensis authorized Maté, Paraguay tea, Yerba maté (EN), Chai paragvaiski, Mate (BG), Maté, Paraguay-Kristtorn (DK), Mate (Yerba mate), Paraguay thee, Maté (NL), Matee (FI), Maté, thé du Paraguay (FR), Mate, Matestrauch, Paraguayteepflanze (DE), Sléttukristþyrnir, Indíánaþyrnir (IS), Matè, aquifoglia Paragua (IT), Matébusk (NO), Chá-das-Missões, chá-dos-Jesuítas, caá, mate, ervamate, congonha, chá-mate (PT), Ostrokrzew (PL), Yerba mate, té del Paraguay, hierba mate (ES), Maté (SE)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List and Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements) concerns only the use of leaves (as tea and food supplement use) of Ilex paraguariensis. According to the NETTOX list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Maté, yerba maté (also spelled yerva maté) or erva maté, Ilex paraguariensis, is a species of holly (family Aquifoliaceae) native to subtropical South America in northeastern Argentina, Bolivia, southern Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay. The maté plant is a shrub or small tree growing up to 15 meters tall. The leaves are evergreen, 7–11 cm long and 3–5.5 cm wide, with a serrated margin. The flowers are small, greenish-white, with four petals. The fruit is a red drupe 4–6 mm in diameter. The leaves, popularly called "herb" contain caffeine and related compounds, and are harvested commercially.
421 Inonotus obliquus food_supplement Chaga, Rezavec šikmý (CZ), Pakurikääpä (FI), Cinder conk (EN), Błyskosporek podkorowy (PL)||Chaga, Inonotus obliquus, can be used in food supplements only, as powder and/or extract. Inonotus obliquus is also known as cinder conk, a mushroom in Hymenochaetaceae family. It is a parasitic fungus on Birch and other trees. The sterile conk is irregularly formed and has the appearance of burnt charcoal. The fertile fruitbody can be found very rarely as a resupinate (crustose) fungus on or near the clinker, usually appearing after the host tree is completely dead. Inonotus obliquus grows in birch forests of Russia, Korea, Eastern Europe, Northern areas of the United States and in the North Carolina mountains.
798 Ipomoea aquatica authorized Water Spinach (EN), Voden spanak (BG), Kangkong (DK), Waterspinazie (NL), Päivänsini (FI), Patate aquatique (FR), Wasserspinat (DE), Convolvolo (IT), Gloria-da-manhã (PT), Ipomoea (PL), Espinaca de agua (ES), Sallatsipomea (SE)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the use of leaves and stem of Ipomoea aquatica. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Ipomoea aquatica is a semi-aquatic tropical plant (plant family Convolvulaceae) grown as a leaf vegetable. It is known in English as Water Spinach, Water Morning Glory, Water Convolvulus, or by the more ambiguous names "Chinese spinach" and "swamp cabbage". It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world; it is not known exactly where it originated. It has been mistakenly called kale by some people in the West, although kale is a different family of plant belonging to the Brassica oleracea Acephala Group and completely unrelated to the Water Spinach. Ipomoea aquatica grows in water or on moist soil. Its stems are 2–3 metres (7–10 ft) or more long, rooting at the nodes, and they are hollow and can float. The leaves vary from typically sagittate (arrow-head-shaped) to lanceolate, 5–15 centimetres (2–6 in) long and 2–8 centimetres (0.8–3 in) broad. The flowers are trumpet-shaped, 3–5 centimetres (1–2 in) diameter, usually white in colour with a mauve centre. The flowers can form seed pods which can be used for planting. Ipomoea aquatica is most commonly grown in East and Southeast Asia. Because it flourishes naturally in waterways and requires little if any care, it is used extensively in Thai, Lao, Cambodian, Malay, Vietnamese and Chinese cuisine, especially in rural or kampung (village) areas. The vegetable is a common ingredient in Southeast Asian dishes.
186 Ipomoea batatas authorized Sweet potato (EN), Zoete aardappel, bataat (NL), Słodki ziemniak, Slodki kartofel, batat, ziemniak słodki (PL), Batata-doce, Batata (PT), Bataatti (FIN), Süßkartoffel, Batate, Uala (DE), Bataat (ET), Batáty (CZ), Batata, camote, boniato (ES), Batáta (HU), γλυκοπατάτα (EL), Batāte, Kumara (LV), Sladki krompir (SL), Batat, Sladak kartof (BG), Batat, Sød Kartoffel (DK), Patate douce (FR), Sætar kartöflur (IS), Batata, patata (IT), Søtpotet (NO), Sötpotatis, batat (SE)||Member of the Convulvolaceae Family, it´s a perennial originating from Central and South America, which is now grown in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate climates. (Sauer J.D.Historical geography of crop plants - a select roster. 1993.CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida). Kumara is a sub species of the sweet potato it´s a cultivar of the breeding between an ancient Polynesian indigenous variety and the Beau-Regarde. The root tubers are known to be used as food or food ingredients. Another request concerns the use of the leaves as vegetables. Such leaves have a history of consumption in France they are used as traditional "bredes".
187 Ipomoea hederacea forbidden Ivy-leaf (EN), Morning-glory (EN), klimopwinde (NL), wilec bluszczowy (PL), liuskaelämänlanka (FI), Jalapa (DE), luuderohi-lehtertapp (ET), povijnice (CZ), Ipomeja (LV), bršljanasti lepi slak (SL), vinda-art (SE)||Having originated in South America, Ipomoea hederacae is now distributed in many parts of the world. A characteristic part of the plant is the light blue flower and sepals that spread to the outside.
911 Irvingia gabonensis authorized African mango, Wild mango, African green mango, Dika, Ogbono, Bush mango||The request concerns the seeds only. Irvingia gabonensis is a species of African trees in the genus Irvingia. The trees bear mango-like fruits which contain edible seeds commonly known as "Ogbono seeds".
188 Jessenia bataua forbidden Patauá, seje, palma de leche (ES), sega (PL), Pátaua-pálma (HU), Palmeira seje (PT)||Plant belonging to the Palmae Family. It is found throughout South America, like Bolivia, Panama, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela.In these countries it is known as seje, patauá, palma de leche and it is considered a potential new oil crop for its seed.
679 Juglans regia authorized Nogal común, nogal inglés (ES), Valnöt (SE), Juglans duclouxiana, Juglans fallax , Juglans kamaonia, Juglans orientis, Juglans sinensis, Saksanjalopähkinä, Saksanpähkinä (FI), Nux Gallica (LAT), Nogal de Castilla (MX), Common walnut, Persian walnut, English walnut (EN), Walnuss, Echte Walnuss (DE), 胡桃 (hú táo) (CN), Oreh (BG), Almindelig Valnød (DK), Okkernoot, walnoot (NL), Noix (FR), Carydia (GR), Valhneta, Valhnotutré (IS), Noce da frutto (IT), Valnøtt (NO), Nogueira-comum (PT), Orzech wloski (PL)||The request concerns the leaves from Juglans regia (walnut). Juglans regia (Persian walnut, English walnut or Common walnut) is an Old World walnut tree species native to the region stretching from the Balkans eastward to the Himalayas and southwest China. The largest forests are in Kyrgyzstan, where trees occur in extensive, nearly pure walnut forests at 1,000–2,000 m altitude. Juglans regia belongs to the family Juglandaceae. Juglans regia is a large deciduous tree attaining heights of 25–35 m, and a trunk up to 2 m diameter, commonly with a short trunk and broad crown, though taller and narrower in dense forest competition. It is a light-demanding species, requiring full sun to grow well. Walnut trees grow best in rich, deep soil with full sun and long summers, such as the California central valley. Walnuts and other tree nuts are important food-allergen sources that have the potential to be associated with life-threatening, IgE-mediated systemic reactions in some individuals.
769 Juniperus communis authorized Juniper, Common Juniper (EN), Kataja (FI), En (SE), Wacholder (DE), Geniévrier, Genévrier commun (FR), Cedros (GR), Einir (IS), Ginepro (IT), Einer (NO), Zimbro, zimbreiro (PT), Jalowiec (PL), Enebro (ES), Hvoina (BG), Almindelig Ene (DK), Jeneverbes (NL)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the fleshy cone (arcesthida) of Juniperus communis. According to the same list it is also used as natural source for flavorings. Juniperus communis, the Common Juniper, is a species in the genus Juniperus, in the family Cupressaceae. It has the largest range of any woody plant, throughout the cool temperate Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic south in mountains to around 30°N latitude in North America, Europe and Asia. The seed cones are berry-like, green ripening in 18 months to purple-black with a blue waxy coating; they are spherical, 4–12 mm diameter, and usually have three (occasionally six) fused scales, each scale with a single seed. Its astringent blue-black seed cones, commonly known as "Juniper berries", are too bitter to eat raw and are usually sold dried and used to flavour meats, sauces, and stuffings. They are generally crushed before use to release their flavour. The cones are used to flavour gin.
927 L-citrulline malate food_supplement The request concerns L-citrulline malate. The organic compound citrulline is an α-amino acid. CM is L-Citrulline bonded to malic acid to enhance absorbtion
984 L-fucose forbidden A consultation request was submitted to the Dutch competent authorities to determine the status of L-fucose (produced by microbial fermentation), pursuant to Article 4(2) of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2015 on novel foods. This product has to be regarded as a novel food, since no evidence was presented, related to previous consumption to a significant degree of the applicant’s L-fucose preparation, nor of the monosaccharide L-fucose itself, for that matter. This information is also publicly available on the following Commission's link:https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en
1031 L-Theanine food_supplement L-Theanine extracted and isolated from green tea (Camellia sinensis) is not novel only in food supplements. L-Theanine from other sources is novel food
799 Lablab purpureus authorized Hyacinth bean, bonavist bean, lablab bean, Indian bean, Egyptian bean (EN), Lablab (BG), Hjelmbønne (DK, NO), Dolique d’Egypte, dolique lab-lab (FR), Koeliboon (NL), Hyasinttipapu (FI), Helmbohne, Lablabbohne (DE), Hjálmbaun (IS), Cucurbita lagenaria, zucca lagenaria (IT), Feijoeiro-bravo, feijão-cutelinho (PT), Fasolnik egipski (PL), Fríjol jacinto, fríjol dólico, judía de Egipto (ES), Hjälmböna (SE), Dolichos lablab, Dolichos purpureus||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the seeds (derived from the pod) of Lablab purpureus. Lablab purpureus (syn. Dolichos lablab L., Dolichos purpureus L., L. niger Medikus, L. lablab (L.) Lyons, Vigna aristata Piper, and L. vulgaris (L.) Savi), commonly known as the hyacinth bean, Indian bean or Egyptian bean, a species of bean in the family Fabaceae (Leguminosae, subfam. Papilionoideae), is widespread as a food crop throughout the tropics, especially in Africa, India and Indonesia. Sometimes the outer peel of the seed is taken out and the inner soft part is used for a variety of dishes.
747 Lactarius deliciosus authorized Saffron milk-cap (EN), Männynleppärousku (FI), Tallblodriska, Läcker riska (SE), Furumatriske (NO), Sanchas (PT), Mleczak, rydz (PL), Níscalo, mízcalo, rovellón (ES), Edelreizker, Echter Reizker (DE), Lactaire délicieux, Agaric délicieux (FR), アカハツタケ (JP), Mlechnica (BG), Velsmagende Mælkehat (DK), Oranjegroene melkzwam (NL), Matglæta (IS), Funghi lattari (IT)||Lactarius deliciosus or saffron milk-cap belongs to the plant family Russulaceae. It can be identified by its orange-red cap with zones of colouration. The gills and stem are also orange or reddish yellow. The stem is hollow, a typical feature of milk-caps. The flesh is yellowish white. The exuded latex is carrot-red and later turns green. The false saffron milk-cap (L. deterrimus) has more closely spaced zones of colour and a more greenish hue than the saffron milk-cap (L. deliciosus). The saffron milk-cap can also be recognized by the pitted orange spots on its stem. Saffron milk-caps need not be boiled before being used in food preparation. They are mild mushrooms with a slightly acrid taste that dissipates as they are cooked. Saffron milk-caps can be prepared in a variety of ways. They are an excellent soup ingredient when dried. They can also be simmered and then frozen in their own broth.
748 Lactarius deterrimus unknown False saffron milk-cap (EN), Рыжики (RU), チチタケ属 アカハツモドキ (JP), Kuuseneppärousku (FI), Granblodriska (SE), Fichtenreizker (DE), Lactaire détestable (FR)||see Lactarius deliciosus
745 Lactarius rufus authorized Rufous milk-cap (EN), Kangasrousku (FI), Pepparriska (SE), Rotbrauner milchling (DE), Lactaire roux (FR), Горькушка (RU), アカチチタケ (JP)||The rufous milk-cap is a rather small to medium-sized edible mushroom. Its cap is a uniform reddish brown, the colour of gingerbread, with a silky sheen when dry, initially convex and later becoming flattened or somewhat funnel-shaped. There is usually a distinct point in the centre of the cap. The gills are a light reddish shade. The stem is slim, smooth and hollow, the same colour as the cap or lighter. The flesh is a light brownish colour and the latex is white and non-staining. It has a hot, acrid flavour and a crisp, coniferous scent. Prior to consumption, freezing or salting, rufous milk-caps must be boiled for 10 minutes in copious water. After boiling, they should be rinsed under running water, and the boil water should be discarded. Small rufous milk-caps are suitable for marinating and for various kinds of pickles.
746 Lactarius torminosus authorized Birkenreizker, Birkenmilchling (DE), Agaricus torminosus, Galorrheus torminosus, Woolly Milk-cap, bearded milkcap (EN), Karvaousku (FI), Skäggriska (SE), Lactaire à toison (FR), Lactarius necator||Lactarius torminosus, commonly known as the woolly milkcap or the bearded milkcap, is a large basidiomycete fungus in the family Russulaceae and genus Lactarius. It is found in the United Kingdom, Northern Europe, and is common in North America, where it grows in mixed forests in a mycorrhizal association with various trees, most commonly birch. Although it is valued for its peppery flavour and eaten after pickling in Russia and Finland, it is highly irritating to the digestive system when eaten raw. The toxins responsible for the acrid taste are destroyed by cooking. The fruit bodies produced by the fungus have caps which can reach up to 10 cm (3.9 in) in diameter. They are pink-flesh coloured, with whitish concentric zones. The edge of the cap is rolled inwards, and shaggy when young. On the underside of the caps are flesh-colored gills crowded closely together. It is on these fertile gill surfaces that the spore-bearing cells, the basidia are found. The cylindrical stem is a pale flesh colour with a delicately downy surface, reaching lengths of up to 8 cm (3.1 in). When cut or injured, the fruit bodies ooze a white latex that does not change colour upon exposure to air. The variety normandensis, in contrast, has latex that changes colour from white to yellow.
743 Lactarius trivialis authorized Northern milk-cap (EN), Haaparousku (FI), Skogsriska (SE), Nordischer Milchling (DE), Lactaire commun (FR), Млечник (RU), キハダチチタケ (JP)||Northern milk-caps are rather large, gilled mushrooms with a slimy surface. The cap colour is greyish brown. The stem is a lighter colour than the cap and is hollow. The gills are white and exude a characteristic white latex when damaged. The latex of milk-caps may change to a greyish-green colour when cooked. The northern milk-cap (L. trivialis) has dark zones or blotches, sometimes with a violet hue, and is darker than the “pallid” northern milk-cap (L. utilis), which is the colour of pale leather and does not have dark zones. The flavour is acrid. Milk-caps have an acrid flavour when unprocessed, so they must be boiled before they are preserved or used in foods. After boiling in water for approximately 5 minutes, the compounds that cause the acrid flavour decay or dissolve and the mushrooms become usable. No food should be prepared with the water in which milk-caps were boiled. Milk-caps are traditionally preserved in salt. Before the preserved mushrooms are used, they should be soaked in cold water overnight in the refrigerator in order to remove the salt. Milk-caps can be used in mushroom salads, meat loaf, pastries, sauces and soups, or as a pizza topping. They can be added to foods immediately after boiling as well. Milk-caps can also be preserved in the freezer after boiling, which eliminates the need for salt.
744 Lactarius utilis unknown see Lactarius trivialis
304 Lactulose authorized laktuloza (PL) (SL), Lactulose (PT) (DE), laktuloosi (FI), laktuloos (ET), laktulosa (CZ), Lactulosa (ES), laktulóz (HU), λακτουλόζη (EL), Laktuloze (LV)||Lactulose (the synthetic compounds of lactose), a disaccharide, is a sugar like hyperosmotic laxative (fast active stimulant).Lactulose has the CAS: 4618-18-2 and EINECS/ELINCS: 225-027-7.
559 Laminaria digitata authorized EN: Oarweed, NL: Gladgesteeld vingerwier, FR: Laminaire digitée, laminaire flexible, goémon de coupe, anguillier (Normandie), tali, taly, DE: Fingertang||Laminaria digitata is a large conspicuous kelp growing up to 2 m in length commonly found at low water during spring tides on rocky shores. The frond is broad and digitate, glossy and dark brown in colour and lacks a midrib. The stipe is oval in cross section, smooth and flexible and is usually free of epiphytes, although old stipes which have become slightly roughened may support a few epiphytes, notably Palmaria palmata. The kelp is attached by freely branched haptera, which spread out to form a shallow dome-shaped holdfast. It is found attached to bedrock or other suitable hard substrata in the lower intertidal and sublittoral fringe, down to a maximum depth of 20 m in clear waters. Laminaria digitata flourishes in moderately exposed areas or at sites with strong water currents. In exposed locations with strong wave action the species may extend upwards into the lower eulittoral. Occurs in rockpools up to mid-tide level and higher on wave-exposed coasts.
190 Laminaria japonica authorized Kelp, Meerkohl (DE), listownica japońska (PL), mořská kapusta, mořská řasa (CZ), kombu (HU), Laminārija (LV), vrsta alge Laminaria (SL), Kelp Japonês (PT), jaapani lehtadru (ET)||Brown marine macroalgae belonging to the Laminariaceae Family and originating in China. Although commercial production of kelp harvested from its natural habitat has been carried out in Japan for over a century, mariculture of this algae on a very large commercial scale was realized in China in the 1950s. Between the 1950s and the 1980s kelp production in China increased significantly its production making China the largest producer of Laminaria.
191 Laminaria longicruris authorized listownica długa (PL), řasa (CZ), laminária alga (HU), vrsta alge Laminaria (SL)||Marine algae which belongs to the Laminariaceae Family and which is normally restricted to subtidal habitats.
560 Laminaria saccharina authorized DE: Zuckertang, SE: Skräppetare, EN: Sugar kelp, Sweet oar-weed, sea belt, NL: Suikerwier, FR: Laminaire sucre||Laminaria saccharina is a yellow brown plant up to 2.5 m in length with a root-like holdfast, a short and flexible stipe, and an undivided laminate blade with parallel, undulated sides and an elongated, tonghe-like appearance. The frond is characteristically dimpled with regular bullations (depressions). Laminaria saccharina can be found in intertidal pools and in the shallow subtidal, becoming more abundant at low water in sheltered localities with parly strong current velocities. The global distribution is circumboreal from northern Russia to Galicia (Spain), but not know from Brittany to Galicia. This species is common on most shores of Britain and Ireland and can also be found on the Island of Helgoland within the German Bight. Laminaria is the most abundantly produced genus of macrophytic algae. Laminaria saccharina is commercially important and is often described to be a "Jack of all trades" due its various commercial potentials. Commercial use is e.g. in food ingredients, bio-absorption of heavy metals and cosmetics.
192 Langermannia gigantea authorized reuzenbovist (NL), vesse-de-loup géante (FR), Giant Puffball (EN), purchawica olbrzymia (PL), jättikuukunen (FI), Riesenbovist (DE), hiidmuna (ET), vatovec obrovský (pýchavka) (CZ), óriás pöfeteg gomba (HU), kæmpe-støvbold (DK), Milzu apaļpūpēdis (LV), orjaški plešivec (SL)||Langermannia gigantea is the ´preferred name´ of wild edible fungi that are still commonly referred to by other names, i.e. Calvatia gigantea and Lycoperdon gigantea (Eric Boa. Wild Edible fungi a global overview of their use and importance to people.FAO
193 Languas speciosa unknown see Alpinia speciosa
591 Laurus nobilis authorized Sweet bay, Laurel, Bay Tree, Bay Laurel, True Laurel, Grecian Laurel, Laurel Tree (EN), Dafinovo durvo (BG), Laakeripuu (FI), Lorbeer (DE), Daphni (GR), Lárviður (IS), Lauro franco, lauro poetico, lauro regio, alloro (IT), Laurbær (NO), Loureiro, louro (PT), Lisc laurowy (PL), Laurel europeo, laurel de cocina (ES), Lager (SE), Ægte Laurbær (DK), Laurier, Laurierboom (NL), Laurier, Laurier-sauce (FR)||The used plant part of laurel are the leaves. In addition the flowers can be used in food supplements. Laurus is a genus of evergreen trees belonging to the Laurel family, Lauraceae. The genus includes three species, whose diagnostic key characters often overlap. One of them is Laurus nobilis L., known commonly as Bay Laurel, True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, or simply Laurel, is the source of the spice Bay leaf. It was also the source of the Laurel wreath of ancient Greece. It is distributed across the Mediterranean region from Spain to Greece. Bay laurel is a pyramid-shaped tree or large shrub with aromatic, evergreen leaves and shiny gray bark. It can reach 60 ft (18.3 m) in height in its native range, but generally is much smaller, 3-10 ft (0.9-3.1 m) tall. in culture. Bay laurel sometimes produces suckers from the base. The leaves are elliptic, 3-4 in (7.6-10.2 cm) long, rather thick and leathery, and shiny dark green. Clusters of small yellow flowers are produced in spring, followed, on the female plants, by shiny black or purple berries about 0.5 in (1.3 cm) long.
194 Lavandula angustifolia unknown see Lavandula officinalis
195 Lavandula officinalis authorized Lavende (FR), Lawenda wąkolistna (PL), Lavanda (PT, ES), Laventeli (FI), Lavendel (DE, NL), Tähklavendel (ET), Levandule lékařská (CZ), Orvosi levendula (HU), λεβάντα (EL), ægte lavendel (DK), Dziedniecības lavanda (LV), Navadna sivka (SL), Lavendel-art (SE), Lavandula angustifolia, Common lavender, English lavender (EN)||The edible part of lavender is the flowering top. Lavandula officinalis is a plant belonging to the Lamiaceae Family and native to the Mediterranean area, cultivated in countries like France, Italy and Spain. Due to its special odor, lavender has found wide application in perfumes and cosmetics throughout history.
740 Leccinum aurantiacum authorized Orange aspen bolete (EN), Haavanpunikkitatti (FI), Aspsopp (SE), Espenrotkappe (DE), Bolet orangé (FR)||Orange boletes are flavourful, large mushrooms with firm edible flesh. The flesh turns dark when cut, a characteristic that does not interfere at all with culinary use of orange boletes. They can also be identified by the reddish brown colour of the cap and the black or brown, downy surface of the stem. The cap cuticle of orange boletes overlaps slightly with the pore surface at the margin. The pore surface stays a light colour for a long time and does not bulge out much. The cap of the orange aspen bolete (L. aurantiacum) is an orange to reddish brown with less of a yellow hue; the tufts of down on the stem are white early on, turning reddish brown with age. The flesh darkens more slowly and does not become as dark as in the birch bolete.
739 Leccinum versipelle authorized Подосиновики (RU), イグチ科 (JP), Koivunpunikkitatti (FI), Orange birch bolete (EN), Tegelsopp (SE), Bolet changeant (FR), Birkenrotkappe (DE)||Orange boletes are flavourful, large mushrooms with firm edible flesh. The flesh turns dark when cut, a characteristic that does not interfere at all with culinary use of orange boletes. They can also be identified by the reddish brown colour of the cap and the black or brown, downy surface of the stem. The cap cuticle of orange boletes overlaps slightly with the pore surface at the margin. The pore surface stays a light colour for a long time and does not bulge out much. The orange birch bolete (Leccinum versipelle) has an orange-coloured cap and dark grey or black tufts of down on the stem from an early age. Its flesh changes markedly in colour, first to a reddish grey and finally to a blackish violet.
741 Leccinum vulpinum authorized Orange pine bolete, foxy bolete (EN) , Männynpunikkitatti (FI)||Orange boletes are flavourful, large mushrooms with firm edible flesh. The flesh turns dark when cut, a characteristic that does not interfere at all with culinary use of orange boletes. They can also be identified by the reddish brown colour of the cap and the black or brown, downy surface of the stem. The cap cuticle of orange boletes overlaps slightly with the pore surface at the margin. The pore surface stays a light colour for a long time and does not bulge out much. The orange pine bolete or foxy bolete (L. vulpinum) has a reddish brown cap, the darkest of these three varieties; the tufts of down on the stem are a light colour in young specimens, turning greyish brown to nearly black with age; the flesh darkens only slightly, becoming reddish in the stem. These species do not need to be distinguished from each other when sold.
197 Lemna minor food_supplement Common duckweed (EN), klein eendekroos (NL), rzęsa drobna (PL), pikkulimaska (FI), kleine Wasserlinse (DE), väike lemmel (ET), okřehek menší (CZ), apró békalencse (HU), νεροφακή (EL), liden andemad (DK), Mazais ūdenszieds (LV), vodna leča (SL), andmat (SE), Lentilha-de-Água (PT)||The surface floating macrophyte duckweed is an aquatic plant belonging to the family of Lemniaceae. According to information available to Member States' competent authorities, the request only concerns traditional herbal infusions on the basis of wine and bee honey prepared with Lemna minor used as food supplements and intended to be consumed as such. Such use is considered as not novel. Any other food uses of this product have to be authorised pursuant to the requirements of Regulation(EU)2015/2283.
996 Lentinula edodes (dehydrated mycelium powder) forbidden The request concerns the use of Lentinula edodes dehydrated mycelium powder. The request was submitted to the Spanish authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Lentinula edodes dehydrated mycelium powder is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Lentinula edodes dehydrated mycelium powder
488 Lentinula edodes (mushroom) authorized CZ: Houževnatec jedlý, EN: Shiitake, DK: Shiitake, NL: Shii-take, Lentinus edodus, GR: Mavitari shiitake, NO: Shiitakesopp, PT: Chitak, fungo, PL: Twardziak jadalny, ES: Hongo shiitake, SE: Shii-take, FI: Siitake, DE: Shii-Take, FR: Shii-take||The shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries, as well as being dried and exported to many countries around the world. It is a feature of many Asian cuisines including Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Thai.
803 Lentinus edodus unknown see Lentinula edodes
198 Lepidium meyenii unknown see Lepidium peruvianum Chacon
343 Lepidium peruvianum authorized Maca (DE) (SL) (PT), Peruvian Maca, Peruvian ginseng (EN), pieprzyca peruwianska (PL), maca (FI) (CZ), mugulkress (ET), perui zsázsa (HU), krasse-art (SE)||Annual plant from the Brassicaceae Family, growing widely all over the Cordillera of the Andes at various altitudes between 4000 and 4500 m above the sea level. The plant was used about 2000 years ago by the Inca Indians and primitive cultivars of Maca have been cultivated as far back as 1600 B.C. It is cultivated in several varieties, differing mainly in the colour of the plant and roots (2). The sowing season occurs from September until November and the harvest time within 7-9 months. The part used is the root, which can be used as fresh root, roasted root or dried root. The root has several colours, yellow, purple and black and a diameter from 3 to 5 cm and a longitude of approx. 15 cm. Roots are collected one by one, then cleaned, washed with water and sun-dried for 15 days.Dried roots have historical uses as food, in particular they are eaten after boiling in water or milk or fruit juices and as flours for making bread and cookies. As a starch plant, the nutritional value of the dried root may resemble to the other cereal grains such as maize, rice and wheat.
199 Leuzea carthamoide unknown see Stemmacantha carthamoide
200 Linum usitatissimum authorized Flax, linseed, common flax, annual flax (EN), Lin (FR, NO, SE), Len zwyczajny (PL), Linho (PT), Kuitupellava, öljypellava, pellava (FI), Lein, Saatlein, Flachs (DE), Harilik lina (ET), Len setý (CZ), Lino (IT, ES), Házi len (HU), λιναρόσπορος (EL), Almindelig hør (DK), Šķiedras lini (LV), Navadni lan (SL), Kultiviran len (BG), Vlas, lijnzaad (NL), Lanari (GR), Hör, Lín (IS)||The seeds (capsules), or the oil from the seeds are normally used. Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name: Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is native to the region extending from the eastern Mediterranean to India and was probably first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. This is called as Jawas/Javas or Alashi in Marathi. Flax was extensively cultivated in ancient Egypt. (New Zealand flax is not related to flax, but was named after it as both plants are used to produce fibres.) Flax is an erect annual plant growing to 1.2 m tall, with slender stems. The leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long and 3 mm broad. The flowers are pure pale blue, 15–25 mm diameter, with five petals; they can also be bright red. The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5–9 mm diameter, containing several glossy brown seeds shaped like an apple pip, 4–7 mm long. In addition to referring to the plant itself, "flax" may refer to the unspun fibres of the flax plant.
1026 Liposomal vitamin C authorized Liposomal vitamin C||The request concerns the use of Liposomal vitamin C. According to the conclusion reached by the Polish competent authorities (Główny Inspektor Sanitarny-Chief Sanitary Inspector) in response to a request submitted pursuant to the requirements of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/456 (https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en) on the procedural steps of the consultation process for determination of novel food status, Liposomal vitamin C is not novel in food.
804 Lippia citrodora unknown see Lippia triphylla
806 Lippia triphylla authorized NL: citroenblad, FR: Lippie, verveine odorante, citronelle, DE: Zitronenstrauch, Lippie, IT: Cedrina, cetrina, erba luigia, NO: Sitronverbena, PT: Bela-Aloízia, bela-Luísa, lúcia-lima, cidrão, limonete, PL: Cytrynowa werbena, ES: cedrón, cidrón, hierba luisa, SE: Citronverbena, EN: Lemon Verbena, Lemon Beebrush, Aloysia citrodora, Lippia citrodora, BG: Limonche, DK: Citronverbena, FI: Sitruunaverbena||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of leaves (in tea use) of Lippia triphylla. Lippia triphylla or Aloysia citrodora is a species of flowering plant in the verbena family, Verbenaceae, that is native to Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, Bolivia, and Peru. Common names include Lemon Verbena and Lemon Beebrush. It was brought to Europe by the Spanish in the 17th century. Lemon Verbena is a deciduous open shrub growing to 2 -3 m high. The 8cm long glossy, pointed leaves are slightly rough to the touch and emit a powerful lemon scent when bruised. Sprays of tiny lilac or white flowers appear in late Spring or early Summer. It is sensitive to cold, losing leaves at temperatures below 0°C although the wood is hardy to -10°C. Lemon verbena leaves are used e.g. to make herbal teas, or added to standard tea in place of actual lemon (as is common with Moroccan tea). In European Union, Verbena essential oils (Lippia citriodora Kunth.) and derivatives other than absolute are prohibited when used as a fragrance ingredient (Commission Directive 2009/164/EU of 22 December 2009).
202 Lithothamnium calcareum authorized It is a red alga of the Corallinacea family
204 Lucuma obovata authorized Lucuma (DE), słobodnik jajowaty (PL), luukum-marmelaadipuu (ET), lukuma (CZ), lukmo (HU), Lukuma augļi (LV), lúcuma (ES)||Belonging to the Sapotaceae Family, lucuma tree naturally grows at high elevations and is native to the Andes mountains of Chile, Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The fruit is round or ovaloid, green with a bright yellow pulp. The fruit (dehydrated powder) might be used to flavour ice-creams, milk based products and also cakes, cookies fillings and several desserts.
165 Lupinus albus authorized White lupin, Egyptian lupin (EN), Weiße Lupine, weiße Wolfsbohne (DE), Lupino selvatico, canajoli, lupino bianco (IT), Witte lupine (NL), Lupin bialy, łubin biały (PL), Valkolupiini (FI), Valge lupiin (ET), Lupina bílá (CZ), Altramuz blanco, chocho, Altramuz (ES), Farkasbab (HU), λευκό λούπινο (EL), Hvid lupin (DK), Baltā lupīna (LV), Vitlupin (SE), Tremoçeiro-branco, Tremoço (PT), Biala lupina (BG), Lupin blanc (FR), Lupina (GR), Hvit lupin (NO)||The edible parts of Lupinus albus are the seeds (originated from the pod). Before 1997 high-alkaloid-containing L. albus seeds have been used in the Mediterranean area. The seeds need preparation cooking, and soaking until bitterness disappear. Otherwise acute poisoning may occur. Additionally a low-alkaloid-containing L. albus strain has been marketed (and accepted) at least in France. Seeds from this strain does not need preparation before use but can be used in flour. Lupinus albus is an annual upright plant (Leguminosae Family, subfam. Papilionoideae) with coarse stems and medium-sized fingerlike leaves. Require cool weather for full development and grow best in sandy soils. Exist in bitter (toxic alkaloid) and sweet varieties. The sweet varieties (alkaloid-free) can be distinguished by taste and smaller growth.
166 Lupinus angustifolius authorized Blue lupin (EN), Blaue Lupine (DE), Sinilupiini, Lupino Azzurro (IT), blauwe lupine (NL), łubin wąskolistny (PL), sinilupiini (FI), ahtalehine lupiin (ET), lupina úzkolistá (CZ), Altramuz azul (ES), keskenylevelű csillagfűrt (HU), smalbladet lupin (DK), Zilā lupīna (LV), blålupin (SE), Tremoço bravo (PT)||Annual upright plant (Leguminosae Family) with coarse stems and medium-sized fingerlike leaves. Require cool weather for full development and grow best in sandy soils. Exist in bitter (toxic alkaloid) and sweet varieties. The sweet varieties (alkaloid-free) can be distinguished by taste and smaller growth.L. albus
167 Lupinus luteus authorized Yellow Lupin (EN), Gelbe Lupine (DE), keltalupiini, gele lupine (NL), łubin żółty (PL), keltalupiini (FI), kollane lupiin (ET), lupina žlutá (CZ), Altramuz amarillo (ES), sárga csillagfűrt (HU), gul lupin (DK), Dzeltenā lupīna (LV), gullupin (SE), Tremoço amarelo (PT)||Annual upright plant (Leguminosae Family) with coarse stems and medium-sized fingerlike leaves. Require cool weather for full development and grow best in sandy soils. Exist in bitter (toxic alkaloid) and sweet varieties. The sweet varieties (alkaloid-free) can be distinguished by taste and smaller growth.L. albus
344 Lutein authorized luteina (PL), Luteína (PT) (ES), luteiini (FI), Lutein (DE), luteiin (ET), lutein (CZ) (HU) (SL), λουτεϊνη (EL), Luteīns (LV)||Lutein is a natural fat-soluble carotenoid, found in vegetables and fruit, particularly concentrated in green leafy vegetables such as kale, spinach and collard greens. It is a yellow pigment classified as common xanthophylls. Xanthophylls play a critical role in the photosynthetic process. Lutein and its isomer, zeaxanthin, often occur together and lutein can be converted to zeaxanthin in the blood serum.
168 Lycium barbarum authorized Matrimony vine (EN), boksdoorn (NL), lyciet (FR), kolcowój szkarłatny (PL), pukinpensas (FI), Bocksdorn (DE), harilik taralõng (ET), kustovnice cizí (CZ), Vid del matrimonio (ES), kínai farkasbogyó (HU), Parastā līcija (LV), vrsta kostovnice (SL), Bocktörne släkting (SE)||Lycium barbarum is a Chinese plant belonging to the Solanaceae Family. Only the use of the berries of Lycium barbarum as food or food ingredients is known in the EU.
345 Lycopene food_supplement likopen (PL), Licopeno (PT) (ES), lykopeeni (FI), Lycopin (DE), lükopeen (ET), lykopen (CZ), likopin (HU), λυκοπένιο (EL), Likopēns (LV), likopen (SL)||Lycopene, is a red, fat-soluble pigment. This carotenoid is found in certain plants and microorganisms. Lycopene from tomatoes is authorised as a food color.Lycopene from tomatoes is also known to be used in food supplements.Lycopene from Blakeslea trispora was authorised as food ingredient to be used in certain foods (Commission Decision 2006/721/EC).
170 Macadamia intergrifolia authorized Macadamia (DE) (ES), Australian nut (EN), makadamia całolistna (PL), orzech australijski PL), makadamia pähkinä (FI), tervelehine makadaamia (ET), nuez australiana (ES), makadám dió (HU), μακαντάμια (EL), Makadāmija, Austrālijas riekstkoks (LV), makadamski oreh (SL)||Macadamias belong to the Proteaceae Family. The first Macadamia plantation was planted in Queensland (Australia) in 1870. By the 1890´s nuts was being grown on the volcanic slopes of Hawaii. From there it was introduced to the world as the "Hawaiian Nut". Some of these trees (to about 15 metres with a bushy habit) are still producing nuts over 100 years later.Only the use of nuts and oil of Macadamia intergrifolia is known in the EU.
171 Macrodiscus lactiflorus unknown see Distictis lactiflora
429 Malpighia glabra authorized Acerola, Barbados cherry tree (EN), Barbadosská třešeň (CZ), Malpighia punicifolia, Barbadoskirsebær, Acerola (DK), Geribde kers, West-Indische kers, Barbadoskers (NL), Acerola (FI, IT), Acerola, Barbadoskirsche (DE), Eplaþyrniber (IS), Barbadoskirsebær (NO), Cereja-de-barbados (PT), Wisnia acerola (PL), Barbadoskörsbär (SE), Cicerola (ES), Cerise de Barbade, Acerola (FR)||The edible part of Malpighia glabra (acerola) is the fruit (botanically berry). The Barbados cherry tree, native to Suriname, grows up to 15 feet tall with wide spreading branches and evergreen oval leaves. It belongs to the plant family Malpighiaceae. The tiny pink-white flowers produce red-orange to bright red, juicy fruits. This fruit is round to oblate. The seed is 3 lobed of which each is triangular with fluted wings. Barbados cherries are often eaten out of hand. They also can be made into juice or jelly.
807 Malpighia punicifolia unknown see Malpighia glabra
808 Malus communis unknown see Malus sylvestris
174 Malus sylvestris authorized BG: Diva iabalka, Kiselica, DK: Skovæble, NL: Appel, Wilde apple, FI: Metsäomenapuu, FR: Pommier, pommier sauvage, DE: Wildapfel, Holz-Apfel, IT: Melo selvatico, NO: Eple, PL: Jablko dzikie, ES: Manzano silvestre, SE: Vildapel, Malus communis, EN: Crab apple, European wild apple, Wild crab apple, GR: Milia, IS: Skógarepli, Villiepli, PT: Macieira-brava||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the use of fruits (pomes) of Malus sylvestris. In addition the use of bud, flower, leaf and root of wild apple are authorized in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Malus sylvestris, the European wild apple, is a species of Malus (crabapple) (plant family Rosaceae subfam. Maloideae (Malaceae)), native to Europe from as far south as Spain, Italy and Greece to as far north as Scandinavia and Russia. Its scientific name means "forest apple", and the truly wild tree has thorns.
594 Mangifera indica pending CZ: Extrakt ze slupky manga, EN, BG, DK, NL, DE, GR, IT, NO, PL, ES, SE: Mango, FI: Mangopuu, FR: Mangue, IS: Mangó, PT: Mangueira, manga||The request concerns mango peel & mango peel extract. Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) reach 35-40 m in height, with a crown radius of 10 m. The tree is long-lived with some specimens known to be over 300 years old and still fruiting. In deep soil the taproot descends to a depth of 20 ft, and the profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots also send down many anchor roots which penetrate for several feet. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15-35 cm long and 6-16 cm broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10-40 cm long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5-10 mm long, with a mild sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. The fruit takes from three to six months to ripen.
175 Manihot esculenta authorized Maniok jedlý (CZ), Manióka (HU), ταπιόκα (EL), Manioks (LV), Manioka (BG, SL), Maniok, kassava (SE), Manioc, Tapioca, farinha de pau (FR), Maniok, cassave, tapioca (NL), Maniok, maniok jadalny (PL), Mandioca (PT), Yuca, mandioca, guacamote, yucca (ES), Maniokki (FI), Maniok, Cassava (DK, GR), Jahumaniokk (ET), Tapíókagrjón (IS), Manioca (IT), Knollmaniok, kassavia (NO), Manihot utilissima, Manioc, cassava (EN), Tapioka, Maniok, Kassave (DE)||The edible parts of Manihot esculenta or Manihot utilissima (manioc, cassava) are the roots and the leaves. Herbaceous shrub or small tree in the plant family Euphorbiaceae that has up to 4 m high with fingerlike leaves. Cultivated widely in the tropics and subtropics for its edible roots.
176 Manihot utilissima unknown see Manihot esculenta
809 Manilkara achras unknown see Manilkara zapota
812 Manilkara zapota authorized Manilkara achras, Achras zapota, Manilkara zapotilla, EN: Sapodilla, chicle, DK: Tyggegummitræ, Sapodil, FR: Sapotier, sapotillier, DE: Breiapfelbaum, Kaugummibaum, Sapote, Sapodilla, IS: Tyggigúmítré, IT: Sapotilla, NO: Sapodilla, PT: Sapotilha, sapodilha, ameixade-compota, PL: Saczyniec, ES: Zapote, zapotillo, SE: Sapotillplommon, FI: Sapotillapuu||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of fruits (berries) and sap of Manilkara zapota. Manilkara zapota, commonly known as the sapodilla, is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to southern Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. It is grown in huge quantities in India, Pakistan and Mexico, and was introduced to the Philippines during Spanish colonisation. Sapodilla belongs to the plant family Sapotaceae and can grow to more than 30 m (98 ft) tall with an average trunk diameter of 1.5 m (4.9 ft). The average height of cultivated specimens, however, is usually between 9 and 15 m (30 and 49 ft) with a trunk diameter not exceeding 50 cm (20 in). It is wind-resistant and the bark is rich in a white, gummy latex called chicle. The ornamental leaves are medium green and glossy. They are alternate, elliptic to ovate, 7–15 cm long, with an entire margin. The white flowers are inconspicuous and bell-like, with a six-lobed corolla. The fruit is a large ellipsoid berry, 4–8 cm in diameter, very much resembling a smooth-skinned potato and containing two to five seeds. Inside, its flesh ranges from a pale yellow to an earthy brown color with a grainy texture akin to that of a well-ripened pear. The seeds are black and resemble beans, with a hook at one end that can catch in the throat if swallowed. The fruit has a high latex content and does not ripen until picked, whereupon the fruit softens to a firmness and appearance very similar to that of a fuzzy, brown-skinned kiwifruit. The fruit has an exceptionally sweet, malty flavor. Many believe the flavor bears a striking resemblance to caramel or a pear candied with brown sugar. The unripe fruit is hard to the touch and contains high amounts of saponin, which has astringent properties similar to tannin, drying out the mouth.
811 Manilkara zapotilla unknown see Manilkara zapota
179 Medicago sativa authorized Alfalfa (PT) (ES) (EN) (DE) (SL) (SE), Spanish clover, California clover (EN), lucerne, luzerne (NL), luzerne commune (FR), Luzerne (DE), lucerna siewna (PL), sinimailanen (FI), tolice vojtěška (CZ), lucerna (HU), τριφύλλι / μηδική (EL), harilik lutsern (ET), lucerne (DK), Sējas lucerna (LV), lucerna (SL)||Alfalfa is a leguminous plant. Native to western Asia and the eastern Mediterranean region. It has been cultivated from ancient time and is highly prized as a pasture and forage plant.
813 Mespilus germanica authorized EN: Medlar, common medlar , BG: Liutiva menta, Djodjen, DK: Mispel, NL: Grootvruchtigemispel, FI: Mispeli, FR: Néflier, nèfle, DE: Mispel, Echte Mispel, Deutsche Mispel, IS: Trjámispill, IT: Nespolo comune, NO: Ekte mispel, PT: Nespereiraeuropeia, PL: Nieszpulka zwyczajna, ES: Níspero, SE: Mispel||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of the fruit (pome) of Mespilus germanica. Mespilus germanica, known as the common medlar is a large shrub or small tree, and the name of the fruit of this tree. It belongs to the plant family Rosaceae subfam. Maloideae (Malaceae). Despite its Latin name, which means German or Germanic medlar, it is indigenous to southwest Asia and also southeastern Europe, mostly the Black Sea coasts of modern Turkey. It may have been cultivated for as long as 3000 years. Mespilus germanica requires warm summers and mild winters and prefers sunny, dry locations and slightly acidic soil. Under ideal circumstances, the deciduous plant grows up to 8 metres (26 ft) tall. Generally, it is shorter and more shrub-like than tree-like. With a lifespan of 30–50 years, M. germanica is rather short-lived. M. germanica leaves are dark green and elliptic, 8–15 centimetres (3.1–5.9 in) long and 3–4 centimetres (1.2–1.6 in) wide. The leaves turn red in autumn before falling. The five-petaled white flowers, produced in late spring, are hermaphrodite and pollinated by bees. The reddish-brown fruit is a pome, 2–3 centimetres (0.79–1.2 in) diameter, with wide-spreading persistent sepals giving a 'hollow' appearance to the fruit. Mespilus germanica fruit are very hard and acidic. They become edible after being softened, 'bletted', by frost, or naturally in storage given sufficient time. Once softening begins the skin rapidly takes a wrinkled texture and turns dark brown, and the inside reduces to the consistency and flavour reminiscent of apple sauce. This process can be a cause of confusion to new medlar consumers, as a softened fruit can give the appearance that it has spoiled. Once bletted, the fruit can be eaten raw, and are often consumed with cheese as a dessert, although they are also used to make medlar jelly and wine. Another dish is "medlar cheese", which is similar to lemon curd, being made with the fruit pulp, eggs, and butter.
347 Methyl Sulphonyl-Methane food_supplement matylsulfonylmetan (CZ), Metil-sulfonil metano (ES), metil-szulfonil-metán (HU), Methyl-sulfonyl-methan (DE), metüülsulfonüülmetaan (ET), metyylsulfonyylmetaani (FI), Metilsulfonilmetāns (LV), metil sulfonil metan (SL)||Methyl Sulphonyl-Methane, MSM
976 methylliberine forbidden IUPAC name: 2-Methoxy-1,7,9-trimethylpurine-6,8-dione. This substance is a novel food
181 Momordica charantia authorized Bitter gourd, balsam pear, balsam apple (EN), Bitter Meloen, Bitterkomkommer, Sopropo, Karaila, balsempeer (NL), Balsamka, przepękla ogórkowa (PL), Karvaskurkku (FI), Balsambirne, Bittermelone, Bittergurke, Balsamapfel (DE), Karella-kibekurk (ET), Hořká okurka (CZ), Melón amargo, momórdiga (ES), Balzsamkörte (HU), Bitter Agurk, Karela (DK), Concombre balsamine, pomme de merveille, margose, papareh, momordique à feuilles de vigne (FR), Grenka kumara (SL), Bittergurka (SE), Careteira, erva de São Caetano, balsamina longa, Melão-de-são-caetano (PT), Beiskjugúrka (IS), Melone amaro (IT), Balsamfrukt, bittermelon (NO)||In the EU only the use of the fruits (berries) of (bitter gourd, balsam pear, balsam apple) as food or food ingredient is known. Plant belonging to the Cucurbitaceae Family. The fruit is indigenous to South America and Asia and are green when young and orange when ripe. The fruit have a lumpy appearance and when fully ripe burst open.
182 Momordica grosvenorii unknown see Siraitia grosvenorii
669 Monarda didyma authorized Scarlet beebalm, Punaväriminttu (FI), Bergamot (EN), Goldmelisse (DE), Indianernessel (DE), Scarlet monarda, Oswego tea, Crimson beebalm||The request concerns the use of flowers of Monarda didyma. Monarda didyma (bergamot, scarlet beebalm, scarlet monarda, Oswego tea, or crimson beebalm) is an aromatic herb in the family Lamiaceae, native to eastern North America from Maine west to Ohio and south to northern Georgia. Its name is derived from its odor, which is considered similar to that of the bergamot orange (lemon-like odor).
652 Monascus albidus unknown See Monascus purpureus
653 Monascus anka unknown See Monascus purpureus
654 Monascus araneosus unknown see Monascus purpureus
655 Monascus major unknown See Monascus purpureus
533 Monascus purpureus food_supplement The request concerns the use of so-called 'red yeast fermented rice' in food supplements only. Red yeast fermented rice is produced by cultivating the yeast Monascus purpureus on rice. The rice is first soaked in water until the grains are fully saturated. The raw soaked rice then is steamed for the purpose of sterilizing and cooking the grains prior to inoculation. Inoculation is done by mixing either M. purpureus spores or powdered red yeast rice together with the rice that is being treated. The mix is then incubated in an environment around room temperature for 3–6 days. During this period of time, the rice should be fully cultured with M. purpureus, with each rice grain turning bright red in its core and reddish purple on the outside. The fully cultured rice is then either sold as the dried grain, or cooked and pasteurized to be sold as a wet paste, or dried and pulverized to be sold as a fine powder.
656 Monascus rubiginosus unknown see Monascus purpureus
657 Monascus vini unknown see Monascus purpureus
975 Monostroma nitidum authorized JP: Aonori||Monostroma nitidum Wittrock is a seaweed belonging to the family Monostromataceae .
183 Moringa oleifera authorized Drumstick tree||Moringa oleifera leaves and pods (containg the seeds) are not novel. Immature seedpods are also called drumsticks. Moringa oleifera is a fast growing, evergreen, deciduous tree. It can reach a height of 10–12 m and the trunk can reach a diameter of 45 cm. The bark has a whitish-grey colour and is surrounded by thick cork. Young shoots have purplish or greenish-white hairy bark. The tree has an open crown of drooping, fragile branches and the leaves build up a feathery foliage of tripinnate leaves.The fruit is a hanging, three-sided brown capsule of 20–45 cm size which holds dark brown, globular seeds with a diameter of approximately 1 cm. The seeds have three whitish papery wings and are dispersed by wind and water.
184 Morus alba authorized EN: White mulberry, DE: Weisse Maulbeere, GR: Aspri muria, IS: Hvítt mórber, IT: Gelso bianco, NO: Kvitmorbær, hvitmorbær, PT: Amoreira blanca, PL: Morwa biala, ES: Mora, BG: Biala chernica, DK: Hvid Morbær, NL: Moerbei, Witte moerbei, FI: Valkomulperi, FR: Mûrier blanc, SE: Vitt mullbär||The fruit (syncarp) of Morus alba (white mulberry) has been used as food in the EU before 15 May 1997 (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List). In addition, the use of young leaves, stem and rhizome (root bark) of white mulberry is authorized in food supplement use (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Morus alba belongs to the plant family Moraceae. On young, vigorous shoots, the leaves may be up to 30 cm long, and deeply and intricately lobed, with the lobes rounded. On older trees, the leaves are generally 5 to 15 cm long, unlobed, cordate at the base and rounded to acuminate at the tip, and serrated on the margins. The leaves are usually deciduous in winter, but trees grown in tropical regions can be evergreen. The flowers are single-sex catkins, with catkins of both sexes being present on each tree male catkins are 2 to 3.5 cm long, and female catkins 1 to 2 cm long. The fruit is 1 to 2.5 cm long in the species in the wild it is deep purple, but in many cultivated plants it varies from white to pink it is sweet but insipid, unlike the more intense flavour of the Red Mulberry and Black Mulberry. The seeds are widely dispersed by birds, which eat the fruit and excrete the seeds. The White Mulberry is scientifically notable for the rapid plant movement of the pollen release from its catkins. The flowers fire pollen into the air by rapidly (25 µs) releasing stored elastic energy in the stamens. The resulting movement is in excess of half the speed of sound, making it the fastest known movement in the plant kingdom.
814 Morus nigra authorized EN: Black mulberry, BG: Cherna chernica, DK: Sort Morbær, NL: Zwarte moerbei, FI: Mustamulperi, FR: Mûrier noir, DE: Schwarze Maulbeere, GR: Mavri muria, IS: Svart mórber, IT: Gelso nero, NO: Svartmorbær, PT: Amoreira negra, PL: Morwa czarna, ES: Morera negra, moral negro, SE: Svart mullbär||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of the fruit (syncarp) of Morus nigra. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. In addition the use of leaves, leaf bud, stem, and bark of the root is autorized in food supplement use (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Morus nigra, the Black mulberry, is a species of mulberry and belongs to the plant family Moraceae. It is native to southwestern Asia, where it has been cultivated for so long that its precise natural range is unknown. Morus nigra is a small deciduous tree growing to about 10-13 metres (35-45 ft) tall. The leaves are about 10-20 centimetres (4-8 in) long and 6-10 centimetres (2½-4 in) broad (up to 23 centimetres or 9 inches long on vigorous shoots), downy on the underside, with the upper surface rough with very short, stiff hairs. The edible fruit is dark purple, almost black, when ripe, 2–3 centimetres (0.8–1.2 in) long, a compound cluster of several small drupes; it is richly flavoured, similar to the red mulberry (Morus rubra) but unlike the more insipid fruit of the white mulberry (Morus alba).
1025 Mumijo food_supplement Asphaltum Panjabinum, Shilajit||The request concerns the use of Mumijo (Asphaltum panjabinum). According to the conclusion reached by German Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL) in response to a request submitted pursuant to the requirements of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/456 (https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en) on the procedural steps of the consultation process for determination of novel food status, Mumijo is novel when used as or in foods other than food supplements. As it may belong to the categories of Article (3)(2)(a)(iii) or (iv) of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 on novel foods an authorization under the Novel Food Regulation is required before it can be placed on the market in the EU as a food.The product is not novel only when used as or in food supplements
816 Musa acuminata authorized PL: Banan chinski, SE: Ädelbanan, EN: Cavendish banana, dwarf sweet banana, dwarf banana, Canary banana, chinese banana, BG: Sladak banan, Musa nana, DK: Dværgbanan, Stuebanan, NL: Dwergbanaan, FI: Kääpiöbanaani, FR: Banane plantain, DE: Banane, Cavendish-Banane, IS: Mjölbanani, IT: Banano, NO: Dvergbanan, PT: Bananeira arã, ES: Banana||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of the fruit (botanically berry) of Musa acuminata. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Musa acuminata or Musa nana is a species of wild banana native to Southeast Asia. It is the progenitor of modern edible bananas, along with Musa balbisiana. First cultivated by humans around 8000 years ago, it is one of the earliest examples of domesticated plants. Musa acuminata belongs to section Musa (formerly Eumusa) of the genus Musa. It belongs to the family Musaceae of the order Zingiberales. It is divided into several subspecies. Musa acuminata are perennial herbs (not trees). The trunk (known as the pseudostem) is made of tightly packed layers of leaf sheaths emerging from completely or partially buried corms. The inflorescence of Musa acuminata grows horizontally or obliquely from the trunk. The individual flowers are white to yellowish-white in color and are negatively geotropic (that is, growing upwards and away from the ground). Both male and female flowers are present in a single inflorescence. Female flowers located near the base (and develop into fruit), and the male flowers located at the tipmost top-shaped bud in between leathery bracts. The rather slender fruits are berries, the size of each depends on the number of seeds they contain. Each fruit can have 15 to 62 seeds. Each fruit bunch can have an average of 161.76 ± 60.62 fingers with each finger around 2.4 cm (0.94 in) by 9 cm (3.5 in) in size. The seeds of Musa acuminata are around 5 to 6 mm (0.20 to 0.24 in) in diamater. They are subglobose or angular in shape and very hard. The tiny embryo is located at the end of the micropyle. Each seed of Musa acuminata typically produce around four times its size in edible starchy pulp (the parenchyma, the portion of the bananas we eat), around 0.23 cm3 (0.014 cu in). The ratio increases dramatically for the 'seedless' modern edible cultivars. The much reduced in size and sterile seeds are now surrounded by 23 times its size in edible pulp. The seeds themselves are reduced to tiny black specks along the central axis of the fruit.
815 Musa nana unknown see Musa acuminata
216 Myrciaria divaricata unknown see Myrciaria dubia
217 Myrciaria dubia food_supplement camu camu (CZ), goździkowiec rozłożysty (PL), Camu-camu (DE)||Plant belonging to the Myrtaceae Family and native to Peru and Brazil. In Peru, the fruits are popular and they are made into drinks and ice creams. Generally, the pulp of the fruit is used to prepare juice, nectars and marmalades.However, in the EU Myriciaria is only know to be used in food supplements.
218 Myrciaria floribunda food_supplement guavaberry (EN), goździkowiec kwiecisty (PL)||Plant belonging to the Myrtaceae Family, Guavaberry is a slow growing shrub or slender tree reaching 10-15m. It occurs wild over a broad territory (Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, southern Mexico, Colombia and eastern Brazil). The fruits are round or oblate (8-16mm in diameter), dark-red or yellow-orange. In Cuba, the fruit are made into jam and juice. In other parts, the fruits are used in tarts and drinks.However, in the EU Myriciaria is only know to be used in food supplements.
219 Myrciaria protracta unknown see Myrciaria floribunda
220 Myrothamnus flabellifolia forbidden myrotamnus wachlarzowaty (PL), Auferstehungspflanze (DE)||Myrothamnus flabellifolia is a short woody shrub belonging to the Myrothamnaceae Family.
987 N-Methyl-D-Aspartate forbidden N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NAMDA) is an amino acid derivative.It is considered a novel food
818 Nasturtium officinale authorized Rorippia nasturtium-aquatica, EN: Water cress, BG: Potocharca, DK: Tykskulpet Brøndkarse, FR: Cresson de fontaine, cresson d’eau, DE: Echte Brunnenkresse, Brunnenkresse, Wasserkresse, GR: Cardamo, IS: brunnperla, IT: Crescione di fonte, NO: Brønnkarse, PT: Agrião, PL: Rukiew wodna, ES: Mastuezo, SE: Källfräne, NL: Waterkers, Witte waterkers, FI: Isovesikrassi||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of the leaves of Nasturtium officinale. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. In addition all plant parts of water-cress are authorized in food supplement use (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Watercresses (Nasturtium officinale, N. microphyllum; formerly Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, R. microphylla) are fast-growing, aquatic or semi-aquatic, perennial plants native from Europe to central Asia, and one of the oldest known leaf vegetables consumed by human beings. These plants are members of the Family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) or cabbage family, botanically related to garden cress, mustard and radish — all noteworthy for a peppery, tangy flavour. The hollow stems of watercress are floating, and the leaves are pinnately compound. Watercresses produce small, white and green flowers in clusters.
221 Nauclea aculeata unknown see Uncaria tomentosa
222 Nauclea tomentosa unknown see Uncaria tomentosa
223 Nelumbo nucifera authorized Blue Lotus Stamens, lotos orzechodajny (PL), lootus, intianlootus (FI), Lotusblume (DE), india lootos (ET), lotos indický (CZ), Loto (ES), νούφαρο (EL), indisk lotus (DK), Lotoss (LV), Lotus (SE), Flor de lótus (PT)||Acquatic perennial plant belonging to the Nymphaeaceae Family and originating from southern Asia and Australia.
224 Nepeta tenuifolia authorized Jing Jie, kocimiętka cienkolistna (PL), ahtalehine kassimünt (ET), šanta (CZ), momordika, grenka kumara (SL), nepeta (SE)||Nepeta is a genus of about 250 species of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae. The members of this group are known as catnips or catmints due to its famed liking by cats. Nepeta pleasantly stimulates cats´ pheromonic receptor. The genus is native to Europe, Asia, and Africa, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region east to mainland China. It is now common in North America as a weed[1]. Most of the species are herbaceous perennial plants, but some are annuals. They have sturdy stems with opposite heart-shaped, green to grayish-green leaves. The flowers are white, blue, pink, or lilac and occur in several clusters toward the tip of the stems. The flowers are tubular shaped and are spotted with tiny purple dots.
819 Nephelium lappaceum authorized EN, DK, DE, NO, PL, SE: Rambutan, NL: Ramboetan, FI: Rambutaani, FR: Ramboutan, litchi chevelu, GR: Ramboteira, IS: Ígulber, IT: Nefelio, PT: Ramboteira, ES: Rambután||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of the fruits (botanically berries) of Nephelium lappaceum. The rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) is a medium-sized tropical tree in the family Sapindaceae, and the fruit of this tree. It is native to Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and elsewhere in Southeast Asia, although its precise natural distribution is unknown. It is closely related to several other edible tropical fruits including the lychee, longan, and mamoncillo. The name rambutan is derived from the Malay word rambutan, meaning "hairy". It is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 12–20 m. The leaves are alternate, 10–30 cm long, pinnate, with 3-11 leaflets, each leaflet 5–15 cm wide and 3-10 cm broad, with an entire margin. The flowers are small, 2.5–5 mm, apetalous, discoidal, and borne in erect terminal panicles 15–30 cm wide. The fruit is a round to oval drupe 3–6 cm (rarely to 8 cm) tall and 3-4 cm broad, borne in a loose pendant cluster of 10-20 together. The leathery skin is reddish (rarely orange or yellow), and covered with fleshy pliable spines, hence the name rambutan, derived from the Malay word rambut which means hairs. The fruit flesh is translucent, whitish or very pale pink, with a sweet, mildly acidic flavor. Rambutan are non-climacteric fruit - that is, they ripen only on the tree. The single seed is glossy brown, 1–1.3 cm, with a white basal scar. The seed is soft and crunchy. Rambutan trees bear fruit twice annually, once in late fall and early winter with a shorter season in late spring and early summer. The fragile nutritious fruit must ripen on the tree, then they are harvested over a four to seven week period. The fresh fruit are easily bruised and have a limited shelf life. An average tree may produce 5,000-6,000 or more fruit (60–70 kg or 130-155 lb per tree). Yields begin at 1.2 tonnes per hectare (0.5 tons/acre) in young orchards and may reach 20 tonnes per hectare (8 tons per acre) on mature trees. In Hawaii, 24 of 38 cultivated hectares (60 of 95 acres) were harvested producing 120 tonnes of fruit in 1997.
226 Nigella sativa authorized Black cumin (EN), zwarte komijn (NL), cumin noir (FR), czarnuszka siewna (PL), ryytineito, rohtoneidonkukka (FI), Schwarzkümmel (DE), aed-mustköömen (ET), černucha setá (CZ), Arañuela, agenuz (ES), fekete kömény (HU), μαυροσούσαμο (EL), sortkommen (DK), Sējas melnsēklīte (LV), črna kumina (SL), svartkummin (SE), Nigela (PT)||Annual herb belonging to the Ranunculaceae Family. The seeds are commonly known as black seed or black cumin and contain oils, proteins, alkaloids and saponin. Historically, the seeds have been used as a spice in the Balkans especially for bread. Furthermore, the seeds have been accepted as a source of aroma in the "blue book" of Council of Europe from 1981.Only the seeds and oil from the seedsof Nigella sativa are known to be used as food or food ingredient in the EU.
227 Ocimum sanctum unknown see Ocimum tenuiflorum
228 Ocimum tenuiflorum food_supplement Holy basil (EN), sacred basil (FR), heilige basilicum (NL), bazylia święta (PL), pyhä basilika (FI), heiliges Basmenkraut, Thai-Basilikum (DE), püha basiilik (ET), basalka tulsi (CZ), indiai szent bazsalikom (HU), βασιλικός ο ιερός (EL), hellig basilikum (DK), Svētais baziliks (LV), sveta bazilika (SL), basilika-art (SE), Manjericão santo (PT)||Plant belonging to the Labiatae Family.The green parts of this plants have a history of consumption as seasoning in Asian dishes (only small amounts. The seeds are considered as novel food. The herb is considered as not novel in food supplements
229 Oenothera biennis authorized Evening primrose oil (EPO), tree primrose (EN), middelste teunisbloem (NL), onagre bisanuelle (FR), wiesiołek dwuletni (PL), Onagra (ES) (PT), iltahelokki (FIN), Nachtkerze (DE), kaheaastane kuningakepp (ET), pupalka dvouletá (CZ), esti kankalin (HU), toårig natlys (DK), Divgadīgā naktssvece (LV), olje dvoletnega svetlina (SL), nattljus (SE)||Common plant native to north America with bright yellow flowers that stay closed during the day but open in the evening. It is cultivated in many countries all over the world.Only the use of so-called "Primrose oil" as food or food ingredient is established in the EU.
230 Olea europaea food_supplement Olive leaf, olive (EN), Olijfblad, Olijf, Olijfboom (NL), Olive, feuille d´olive, olivier (FR), Oliwka, oliwka europejska (PL), Oliveira (PT), Öljypuu, oliivipuu, oliivi (FI), Olive (DE), Harilik õlipuu (ET), Olivovník evropský (CZ), Aceituna, Olivo (ES), Olajfa (HU), φύλλο ελιάς (EL), Oliven (DK), Eiropas olīvkoks (LV), Oljčno listje (SL), Oliv (SE), Smjörviður, ólífutré, olíuviður (IS), Oleastro, olivo selvatico (IT), Oliven (NO), Elia, Maslina (GR)||The request concerns the use of olive leaves. Olive tree belongs to the Oleaceae Family and it is an evergreen plant, native to the Mediterranean area but widely grown in tropical areas and warm climates.
231 Olivella spinosa unknown see Hippophae rhamnoides L.
965 Omega-3 fatty acid-lysine salt authorized The request concerns whether Omega-3 fatty acid-lysine salt for use as an ingredient in food supplements falls within the scope of the novel food regulation. The conclusion is that the product is not a novel food. This is on the basis that the food is not a new molecular structure within the meaning of Article 3(2)(2)(a)(i) of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283.
680 Opuntia ficus-indica authorized Opuntia maxima, Opuntia paraguayensis, Barbary fig, Indian fig, Indian fig opuntia, prickly pear (EN), Viikunaopuntia, viikuna-kaktus (FI), Cactus decumanus, Cactus ficus-indica, Opuntia amyclaea, Opuntia cordobensis, Opuntia decumana, Opuntia gymnocarpa, Opuntia hispanica, Opuntia megacantha, Fico d'India (IT), Indische vijgen, cactus vijg (NL), Opuntia, figue de Barbarie (FR), Echter Feigenkaktus, Indische Feige (DE), Fragosykia (GR), Kaktusfíkja (IS), Opuncia (BG), Ægte Figenkaktus (DK), Fikenapuntia, Fikenkaktus (NO), Figueira-da-Índia, cacto, tabaiba (PT), Fikus opuntia (PL), Higo chumbo (ES), Fikonkaktus (SE)||The request concers the juice from the fruits and platiclades of Opuntia ficus-indica. Opuntia ficus-indica is a species of cactus that has long been a domesticated crop plant important in agricultural economies throughout arid and semiarid parts of the world. It is thought to possibly be native to Mexico. Some of the common English names for the plant and its fruit are Indian fig opuntia, barbary fig, and prickly pear, although this last name has also been applied to other less common Opuntia species. The most commercially valuable use for Opuntia ficus-indica today is for the large, sweet fruits, called tunas. The fruit are typically eaten, minus the thick outer skin, after chilling in a refrigerator for a few hours. They have a taste similar to a juicy, extra sweet watermelon. The bright red/purple or white/yellowish flesh contains many tiny hard seeds that are usually swallowed, but should be avoided by those who have problems digesting seeds. Jams and jellies are produced from the fruit, which resemble strawberries and figs in color and flavor. Mexicans have also used Opuntia for thousands of years to make an alcoholic drink called colonche. Mexican and other southwestern residents eat the young cactus pads, usually picked before the spines harden. They are sliced into strips, skinned or unskinned, and fried with eggs and jalapeños, served as a breakfast treat. They have a texture and flavor like string beans. In Malta, a liqueur called Bajtra (the Maltese name for prickly pear) is made from this fruit, which can be found growing wild in most every field. On the island of Saint Helena, the prickly pear also gives its name to locally distilled liqueur, Tungi Spirit. Other uses include as an ingredient in adobe (to bind and waterproof).
737 Origanum minutiflorum forbidden The request concerns the extract from Origanum minutiflorum. Origanum is a genus of about 20 species of aromatic herbs in the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region east to eastern Asia. The genus includes some important culinary herbs, including marjoram and oregano.
539 Origanum vulgare food_supplement Rigan (BG), Wilde marjolein, oregano (NL), Almindelig Merian, Vild Merian, Oregano (DK), Oregano, Dost (DE), Orégano (ES), Wild marjoram, European Oregano, Oregano (EN), Dobromysl obecná, Dobromyslovy oleij (CZ), Mäkimeirami, oregano (FI), Origan vulgaire, marjolaine sauvage, marjolaine bâtarde (FR), Rigani (GR), Kjarrminta (IS), Origano, regamo, acciughero (IT), Bergmynte, Oregano (NO), Orégão, orégano (PT), Oregano, lebiodka (PL), Kungsmynta (SE)||The request concerns oil from Origanum vulgare leaf extract. The leaves of Origanum vulgare or European oregano has been used as food within the EU before 15 May 1997 and it is also in the EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List. According to the list it is used as natural source for flavourings. Oregano or Origanum vulgare is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. It belongs to the plan family Lamiaceae (Labiatae). Origanum vulgare is a perennial herb, growing to 20-80 cm tall, with opposite leaves 1-4 cm long. The flowers are purple, 3-4 mm long, produced in erect spikes. The extract from Origanum vulgare can be considered as medicinal in some Member States.
233 Orthosiphon stamineus food_supplement nierthee (NL), thé de Java (FR), ortosyfon groniasty (PL), Ortisofon (PT), chá de java (PT), Katzenbart (DE), malai vurrumünt (ET), javanský čaj (CZ), Putekšņlapu ortosifone (LV), nitasti ortosifon, javanski čaj (SL)||Plant belonging to the Lamiaceae Family.
234 Oryza sativa authorized Rice Bran Oil, Rice (EN), Ryz, ryż siewny (PL), Arroz (PT) (ES), Riisin leseöljy, Riisi (FI), Reis (DE), Harilik riis (ET), Rýže setá (CZ), Rizs (HU), έλαιο από πίτυρο ρυζιού (EL), Ris (DK, NO, SE), Rīsu kliju eļļe (LV), Riževo olje (SL), Rysi (GR), Hrísgrjón (IS), Riso (IT), Oriz (BG), Rijst (NL), Riz (FR)||This item concerns whether rice bran oil would fall under Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Most of the rice varieties grown in the world belong to the species Oryza sativa (plant family Poaceae (Gramineae)) which has its origin in Asia. The edible part of rice is the fruit (achene).
235 Oxalis tuberosa authorized knolliger Sauerklee (DE), oka (DK), oca, apio blanco (ES), Chioca, Oca, szczawik bulwiasty (PL), mugul-jänesekapsas (ET)||This vegetable originated from the Andes of South America. It ranges from pale creamy-white to deep purplish red in colour and sweet to slightly astringent in taste, depending on variety. It is a popular root crop of the Andes. It is easy to prepare, as it does not require peeling, however, as it is a root crop, proper cleaning is essential before roasting, steaming or frying.
851 Oxycoccus macrocarpus unknown see Vaccinium macrocarpon
762 Oxycoccus quadripetala unknown see Vaccinium oxycoccus
722 Oxytenanthera albociliata unknown see Gigantochloa albociliata
236 Ozohallila nodosa unknown see Ascophyllum nodosum L.
674 Paeonia officinalis authorized Common peony (EN), Pfingstrose (DE), Tarhapioni (FI), European peony (EN)||The request concerns the flowers of Paeonia officinalis. Paeonia officinalis (European peony, Common peony) belongs to the family Paeoniaceae. It is the common peony cultivated in Europe for five hundred years. It was first used for medicinal purposes, then grown as an ornamental. Many selections are now used in horticulture, though the typical species is uncommon. Paeonia officinalis is still found wild in Europe, mainly all over the Mediterranean area.
929 Palm sugar authorized jaggery, kitul, kithul||Palm sugar known as jaggery (or gur) from the sap of various palm trees, notably Arenga pinnata and Borassus flabellifers. In Indonesia this is called ‘gula jawa’ (for Java) and in Malaysia ‘gula melaka'.
237 Palmaria palmata authorized Dillisk, Dillesk, Crannogh, Water Leaf, Sheep Dulse, Dried dulse (EN), Goémon à vaches (FR) , Duileasc, Creathnach (Irish), Botelho-comprido (PT), Rodymenia palczasta (brunatnica) (PL), Rotalge (DE), Rödsallat (SE), Sarkanā aļģe (LV) , Vörös pálmaalga (HU), červená řasa (CZ)||Common names: kuntze, dulse, dillisk, rodymenia palczasta (brunatnica) (PL), dulse (FIN), Rotalge (DE), červená řasa (CZ), vörös pálmaalga (HU), Sarkanā aļģe (LV), rödsallat (SE) This is a common red seaweed found between the tides on rocky shores and is named for its resemblance to the palm of the human hand (Latin, palma).Reddish brown, membranous or leathery, flattened fronds, 50-300 (-1000) mm long, arising from a discoid base, usually with a small stipe expanding gradually to form simple or dichotomously and palmately divided fronds, often with characteristic marginal leaflets. Blade very variable in shape, having broadly ovate to narrowly linear segments.
238 Panax notoginseng food_supplement Ginseng, Japanese ginseng EN), żeń-szeń fałszywy (PL), japanischer Ginseng (DE), všehoj čínský, ženšen (CZ), ginzeng (HU), sydkinesisk ginseng (DK), Japāņu žeņšeņs (LV), vrsta ginsenga (SL), ginseng-art (SE), Ginseng japonês (PT)||Low-growing perennial herbs of the Araliaceae Family. The term ginseng refers to any of 22 different plants, usually of the genus Panax. Most botanists recognise three species, Panax ginseng (Chinese or Korean ginseng), Panax pseudoginseng (Japanese ginseng) and Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng).
239 Panax ginseng authorized Ginseng (PT) (ES) (SE), Chinese ginseng (EN), mandragone coréenne (FR), żeń-szeń właściwy (PL), ginseng (SL) (FI), korean ginseng (FI), chinesischer Ginseng (DE), hiina ženženn (ET), všehoj ženšenový, korejský ženšen (CZ), ginzeng (HU), κορεάτικο τζίνσενγκ (EL), koreansk ginseng (DK), Ķīniešu žeņšeņs (LV), praci ženšen (SL)||Low-growing perennial herbs of the Araliaceae Family. The term ginseng refers to any of 22 different plants, usually of the genus Panax. Most botanists recognise three species, Panax ginseng (Chinese or Korean ginseng), Panax pseudoginseng (Japanese ginseng) and Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng).In the EU Panax ginseng was used as an ingredient to beverages.
240 Panax pseudoginseng food_supplement Low-growing perennial herbs of the Araliaceae Family. The term ginseng refers to any of 22 different plants, usually of the genus Panax. Most botanists recognise three species, Panax ginseng (Chinese or Korean ginseng), Panax pseudoginseng (Japanese ginseng) and Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng).
241 Panax quinquefolius authorized Ginseng (ES), American ginseng (EN), żeń-szeń amerykański (PL), amerikan ginseng (FI), amerikanischer Ginseng (DE), ameerika ženženn (ET), americký ženšen (CZ), amerikai ginzeng (HU), amerikansk ginseng (DK) (SE), Amerikas žeņšeņs, pieclapu žeņšeņs (LV), vrsta ginsenga (SL), ginseng americano (PT)||Low-growing perennial herbs of the Araliaceae Family. The term ginseng refers to any of 22 different plants, usually of the genus Panax. Most botanists recognise three species, Panax ginseng (Chinese or Korean ginseng), Panax pseudoginseng (Japanese ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng).
548 Passiflora edulis authorized Maracuyá común, fruto de la pasión, Fruta de la pasión (ES), Purple granadilla, Passion fruit (EN), Maracujá-roxo, maracujá (PT), Meczennica (PL), Passionsfrukt (SE), Pasiflora (BG), Passionsfrugt (DK), Passievrucht (NL), Punapassioni (FI), Fruit de la passion (FR), Passionsfrucht, Maracuja, Passionsblume, Purpurgranadilla, Gelbe Granadilla (DE), Passiflora (GR), Ástaraldin (IS), Passiflora varieta (IT), Purpur pasjonsfrukt (NO)||The food ingredient for which opinion is sought is under the name Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims. commonly named as gulupa. The fruit ( gulupa) is purple, round to oval, with a dry and wrinkled skin when ripe. Inside, where the fruit is, it is soft to firm and juicy, full of numerous seeds.
242 Paullinia cupana authorized Guaranà (IT), Guarana, osmęta brazylijska (PL), Guaraná (EN, DK, NL, ES), Guarana, Guaranastrauch (DE), Guaraana-pauliinia (ET), Guarana (FI, CZ, GR, NO), γκουαρανά (EL), Guarāna (LV), Pavlinija (SL), Paulinia (BG), Paullinie, Guarana (FR), Guaraná, varaná, uraná (PT), Guarána (SE, HU)||The edible parts of Paullinia cupana (guaraná) are the fruits and the seeds(derived from a capsule). Paullinia cupana (syn. P. crysan, P. sorbilis), is a climbing woody vine plant in the maple family, Sapindaceae, native to the Amazon basin and especially common in Brazil. In Brazil it is widely employed to flavour carbonated soft drinks. Guarana features large leaves and clusters of flowers, and is best known for its fruit, which is about the size of a coffee berry. Each fruit harbors one seed which contains approximately five times as much caffeine as coffee beans. The fruit is pear shaped. Its color ranges from brown to red and contains black seeds which are partly covered by white arils. When ripe the fruit partially opens and at this stage the seeds are harvested, to prevent them from falling on the ground, then roasted, dried and grounded into a powder. As with other plants producing caffeine, the high concentration of caffeine is a defensive toxin that repels pathogens from the berry and its seeds. Another request on the pulp of Paullina cupana concerns ethanolic extracts from the pulp low in caffeine. According to information available such a product might require authorisation under the NF regulation.
1023 Pea Protein Hydrolysate and Soy Protein Hydrolysate authorized The product consists of protein hydrolysates obtained by the mild acid hydrolysis of commercially available pea (Pisum sativum) and soy (Glycine max) protein isolates for use as a source of protein in various food types. According to the conclusion reached by the Irish Food Safety Authority in response to a request submitted pursuant to the requirements of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/456 (https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en) on the procedural steps of the consultation process for determination of novel food status, Pea Protein Hydrolysate and Soy Protein Hydrolysate are not novel
948 Penicillium oxalicum var. armeniaca forbidden The request concerns the use of Penicillium oxalicum var. armenica in food supplements.
244 Perilla frutescens food_supplement perilla (PT) (LV) (ES), pachnotka zwyczajna (PL), kähäräveripeippi (FI), Schwarznessel (DE), pronks-lutiklill (ET), perila křovitá (CZ), fekete csalán (HU), bladmynte (DK), črna kopriva (SL), bladmynta (SE), perilla, beefsteak plant, Chinese basil, wild basil, purple mint, rattlesnake weed (EN)||Perilla frutescens is an edible herb and ornamental plant in the mint family Lamiaceae (Labitae). Its common name is perilla; it is also called beefsteak plant, Chinese basil, wild basil, purple mint, rattlesnake weed, or summer coleus. Perilla is a perennial herb and can grow to 3-5 feet tall. Its leaves are used as foods in China, Japan and Korea and its seeds are used to make edible oil in Korea. There are red and green perilla. The red perilla has red leaves and used mostly in fish stews in China. The green perilla is more commonly found in Korean cuisine and Japanese cuisine.
245 Perna canaliculus food_supplement Green Lipped Mussel (EN), Lyprinol, groenlipmossel (NL), omułek nowozeladzki (PL), vihersimpukka (FI), Grünlippmuschel (DE), roherannakarp (ET), slávka zelenoústá (CZ), Új-zélandi zöldkagyló (HU), Perna gliemenes (LV), vrsta novozelandske školjke (SL), Mexilhão de Lábio Verde (PT)||Green-lipped mussels are found in the oceans of the New Zealand.
664 Persea americana authorized FR: Avocat, IS: Lárpera, PT: Abacateiro, pêraabacate, ES: Aguacate, palto, EN: Avocado, Avocado pear, alligator pear , GR, FI, PL, SE: Avokado, DK, NL, DE, GR, IT, NO: Avocado||The request concerns avocado oil that is produced from the fruit flesh of Persea americana. The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree native to Central Mexico, classified in the flowering plant family Lauraceae. Avocado or alligator pear also refers to the fruit (botanically a large berry that contains a single seed) of the tree, which may be pear-shaped, egg-shaped or spherical.
350 Persea gratissima unknown Siberian pine, Siberian cedar (EN), Sibrische Zirbelkiefer (DE)||see Persea americana MILL.
500 Persica vulgaris unknown See Prunus persica.
247 Pharbitis hederecea unknown see Ipomoea hederacea L.
205 Phaseolus angularis authorized Adzuki, Red bean (EN), fasola kątowa, fasola adzuki (PL), Feijão Adzuki (PT), adukipapu (FI), Adzukibohne (DE), asukivigna (ET), fazole červená (CZ), vörös adzuki bab (HU), acukibønne (DK), sarkanās, šķautņainās pupiņas (LV), rdeči fižol (SL), adzukiböna (SE)||Leguminosae plant belonging to the Fabaceae Family and widely grown both in China and Japan for the flour made from its seeds. This species should not be confused with the well-known one of the "common bean" (Phaseolus vulgaris). Adzuki is also known as red bean and it is used in these countries as a major ingredient in preparing deserts and soups.Only the beans of Phaseolus angularis are known to be used as food or food ingredient in the EU.
820 Phaseolus coccineus authorized EN: Scarlet runner bean, runner bean, BG: Sharen bob, DK: Pralbønne, NL: Pronkboon, FI: Ruusupapu, FR: Haricot moucheté d’Espagne, DE: Feuerbohne, Prunkbohne, Blumenbohne, IS: Klifurbaun, Skrautbaun, IT: Fagioli di Spagna, NO: Prydbønne, PT: Feijão-de-sete-anos, PL: Fasola ozdobna, ES: Judía pinta, SE: Rosenböna||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the use of seeds (derived from the pod) of Phaseolus coccineus. Phaseolus coccineus, the runner bean or scarlet runner bean since most varieties have red flowers and multicolored seeds, though some have white flowers and white seeds, is a plant in the Fabaceae (Leguminosae subfam. Papilionoideae) family. It differs from the common bean in several respects: the cotyledons stay in the ground during germination, and the plant is a perennial vine with tuberous roots (though it is usually treated as an annual). This species originated from the mountains of Central America. The seeds can be used fresh or as dried beans. Runner beans contain traces of the poisonous lectin, Phytohaemagglutinin, found in common beans and hence must be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
855 Phaseolus cylindricus unknown see Vigna unguiculata
980 Phellodendron chinensis forbidden The request concerns the use of the bark of Phellodendron chinensis C.K.Schneid The request was submitted to the Estonian authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, the bark of Phellodendron chinensis is considered novel food.The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Chrysanthemum morifolium
699 Phlebodium aureum food_supplement Polypodium leucotomos, Polypodium aureum, Golden polypody (EN), Golden serpent fern (EN), Gabbage palm fern (EN), Kultaimarre (FI)||The request concerns the summits and the rhizomaes of Phlebodium aureum. Phlebodium aureum (Golden polypody, Golden serpent fern or Cabbage palm fern; syn. Polypodium aureum, Polypodium leucotomos) is an epiphytic fern native to tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas and it belongs to the plant family Polypodiaceae. It is confined to the eastern side of the continents, extending north into the United States to Florida and the extreme southeast of Georgia, and south through the Caribbean (the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and Lesser Antilles), and northern and eastern South America to Paraguay. It is the only species of Phlebodium found in North America, the other ten or so species all confined to South America. Other common names include Calaguala (among Spanish speaking peoples), Kalawalla, Samambia, and Anapsos. It is a rhizomatous fern, with the creeping rhizome 8-15 mm (rarely 30 mm) in diameter, densely covered in the golden-brown scales that give the species its name. The fronds are large and pinnatifid (deeply lobed), from 30-130 cm long and 10-50 cm broad, with up to 35 pinnae; they vary in color from bright green to glaucous green and have undulate margins. Several round sori run along each side of the pinna midrib, and the minute spores are wind-dispersed. The fronds are evergreen in areas with year-round rainfall, semi-evergreen or briefly deciduous in areas with a marked dry season.
348 Phosphatidylserine food_supplement fosfatydyloseryna (PL), Fosfatidilserina (ES) (PT), fosfatidylseriini (FI), Phophatidylserin (DE), fosfatidüülseriin (ET), fosfatidylserin (CZ), foszfatidil-szerin (HU), φωσφατιδυλο-σερίνη (EL), fosfatidil serin (SL)||Phosphatidylserine (PS) and other phospholipids are large "lipid" molecules that hold together the diversity of large molecules in the cell´s membrane systems.
208 Phyllantus emblica unknown see Emblica officinalis
724 Phyllostachys edulis unknown see Phyllostachys pubescens
731 Phyllostachys pubescens authorized Phyllostachys edulis, Calami babu (GR), Bambusreyr (IS), Bambù gigante (IT), Bambú (PT, ES), Grönsaksbambu (SE), Bamboo, bamboo cane (EN), Mehunka (BG), Bambus (DK, DE, NO, PL), Bamboe (NL), Bambu (FI), Bambou (FR)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the stem (botanically immature shoot) of Phyllostachys pubescens. Phyllostachys pubescens or Phyllostachys edulis is one of the edible bamboo species and belongs to the plant family Poaceae (Gramineae). This bamboo can reach heights of up to 70 feet (20 meters).
498 Physalis peruviana authorized EN: Cape gooseberry, physalis, Ican berry, Aguaymanto, Poha berry, Ground-cherry, Peruvian cherry, PT: Tomateiro-Inglês, groselha-do-Perú, tomatinho-de-capuz, SE: Kapkrusbär, BG: Peruanska mehunca, DK: Ananaskirsebær, NL: Goudbes, FI: Ananaskirsikka, kapinkarviainen, FR: Groseiller du Cap, coqueret du Perou, DE: Kapstachelbeere, Essbare Judenkirsche, IS: Blæjuber, IT: Pomodoro silvestre, NO: Physalisfrukt, Barbadoslykt, PL: Miechunka peruwianska, ES: Alquequenje pernaro, tomate silvestre, uchuva||Only the fruits (botanically berries) of Physalis peruviana (cape gooseberry) are known to be used as foods in the EU. Physalis peruviana, commonly known as physalis, is indigenous to South America, but was cultivated in South Africa in the region of the Cape of Good Hope during the 1800s, imparting its common name, cape gooseberry. As a member of the plant family Solanaceae, it is related to a large number of edible plants, including tomato, eggplant and potato, and other members of the nightshades. It is closely related to the tomatillo but not to the cherry, Ribes gooseberry, Indian gooseberry or Chinese gooseberry, as its various names might suggest. The fruit is a small round berry about the size of a marble with numerous small yellow seeds. It is bright yellow and sweet when ripe. Its most notable feature is the single papery pod or "cape" that covers each berry. Because of the fruit's decorative appearance, it is sometimes used in restaurants as an exotic garnish for desserts. If the fruit is left inside the husks, its shelf life at room temperature is over 30-45 days. Physalis peruviana has a variety of names, mostly of geographic or language use, such as Aguaymanto, cape gooseberry, poha berry, ground-cherry, Peruvian cherry, haranksh, golden berry, uchuva, Inca berry, uvilla, capuli or sfivalis.
210 Physocaulon nodosum unknown see Ascophyllum nodosum L.
491 Picea abies authorized EN: Norway spruce, FR: Epicéa commun, Epicéa, Faux sapin, Pesse, Sapin élevé, Sapin rouge, FI: kuusi, SE: Gran, DE: Gemeine Fichte, Rotfichte, Rottanne , NL: Fijnspar, Grote spar||According to information available only the use of bud of the young shoots (sprouts) is known as a food ingredient. However, the use of the leaves (needles), flowers, pine cones and resin of Picea abies (Norway Spruce) is known as food supplements in the EU before 15 May 1997. Norway Spruce (Picea abies) is a species of spruce native to Europe. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 35-55 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1-1.5 m. The shoots are orange-brown and glabrous (hairless). The leaves are needle-like, 12-24 mm long, quadrangular in cross-section (not flattened), and dark green on all four sides with inconspicuous stomatal lines. The cones are 9-17 cm long (the longest of any spruce), and have bluntly to sharply triangular-pointed scale tips. They are green or reddish, maturing brown 5-7 months after pollination. The seeds are black, 4-5 mm long, with a pale brown 15 mm wing. The Norway Spruce grows throughout Europe from Norway in the northwest and Poland eastward, and also in the mountains of central Europe, southwest to the western end of the Alps, and southeast in the Carpathians and Balkans to the extreme north of Greece. The northern limit is in the arctic, just north of 70°N in Norway. Its eastern limit in Russia is hard to define, due to extensive hybridisation and intergradation with the Siberian Spruce (Picea obovata, syn. P. abies subsp. obovata), but is usually given as the Ural Mountains. However, trees showing some Siberian Spruce characters extend as far west as much of northern Finland, with a few records in northeast Norway. The hybrid is known as Picea x fennica (or P. × subsp. fennica, if the two taxa are considered subspecies), and can be distinguished by a tendency towards having hairy shoots and cones with smoothly rounded scales. Populations in southeast Europe tend to have on average longer cones with more pointed scales; these are sometimes distinguished as Picea abies var. acuminata (Beck) Dallim. & A.B.Jacks., but there is extensive overlap in variation with trees from other parts of the range. Some botanists treat Siberian Spruce as a subspecies of Norway Spruce, though in their typical forms, they are very distinct, the Siberian Spruce having cones only 5-10 cm long, with smoothly rounded scales, and pubescent (hairy) shoots. Genetically Norway and Siberian Spruces have turned out to be extremely similar and should be considered as two closely related subspecies of P. abies. Another spruce with smoothly rounded cone scales and hairy shoots occurs rarely in the central Alps in eastern Switzerland. It is also distinct in having thicker, blue-green leaves. Many texts treat this as a variant of Norway Spruce, but it is as distinct as many other spruces, and appears to be more closely related to Siberian Spruce, Schrenk's Spruce (P. schrenkiana) from central Asia and Morinda Spruce (P. smithiana) in the Himalaya. Treated as a distinct species, it takes the name Alpine Spruce (Picea alpestris (Brügger) Stein). As with Siberian Spruce, it hybridises extensively with Norway Spruce; pure specimens are rare.
349 Pinitol food_supplement D-Pinitol, pinitol (PL) (CZ) (SL), Pinitol (PT) (DE) (ES), Pinitoli (FI), Pinitols (LV)||D-pinitol (2-0-Methyl-1,2,4 cis-3,5,6 trans hexahydrooxycyclohexane) is derived from pine trees. Chemically, it is defined as an inositol which are a class of compounds consisting of nine distinct isomers also called as sugar alcohols.
865 Pinus balsamea unknown see Abies balsamea
211 Pinus koraiensis forbidden Korean Pine (EN), sosna koreańska (PL), koreansembra (FI), Koreakiefer (DE), korea seedermänd (ET), borovice korejská (CZ), kóreai fenyő (HU), koreafyr (DK), Korejas ciedrupriede (LV), korejska cedra (SL), koreatall (SE), Pinhão coreano (PT)||Pinus koraiensis belongs to the Pinaceae Family and grows in Korea, Japan,Siberia and Manchouria (North of China).In the EU the use of nuts and oil from Pinus koreainensis as food or fodd ingredient is established. However, preparations with free fatty acids from the oil have no history of consumption in the EU.
212 Pinus pinaster food_supplement French maratime pine, tree bark (EN), zeeden (NL), pin maritime (FR), sosna nadmorska (PL), Pinheiro-bravo (PT), rannikkomänty (FI), Strandkiefer (DE), merimänd (ET), borovice hvězdovitá (CZ), Pino marítimo (ES), Francijas piejūras priede (LV), vrsta bora (SL), terpentintall (SE)||One of the most important Coniferae in south-western Europe belonging to the Pinaceae Family . It is salt-tolerant and grows quite well near the sea. Its foliage is dark green, its bark is thick with deep, red coloured fissures and has pointed, big, egg-shaped buds.
213 Pinus sibirica authorized Siberian pine, Sibirian cedar (EN), Sibirische Zirbelkiefer (DE), sosna syberyjska (PL), siperianmänty (FI), sibirische Zirbelkiefer (DE), siberi seedermänd (ET), borovice sibiřská (CZ), szibériai fenyő (HU), Sibīrijas ciedrupriede (LV), sibirska cedra (SL), Sibirisk cembrtall (brödtall) (SE)||Belongs to the Pinaceae Family and is native to Siberia, Mongolia and China. This tree is cold-tolerant and can grow in cold climate with high altitude. It is a member of the white pine group: Siberian pine cones are 5-9 cm long with 9-12 mm long seeds. Some botanists treat Pinus sibirica as a variety or subspecies of the very similar Swiss Pine Pinus cembra, from which it differs e.g. in having slightly larger cones and leaves with three resin canals rather than two as in the Swiss pine.In the EU the use of nuts from Pinus sibirica as food or food ingredient is established.
736 Pinus sylvestris authorized EN: Scots Pine, FI: Mänty, metsämänty, NL: Grove den, FR: Pin sylvestre, Pin-sauvage, DE: Waldkiefer, Gemeine Kiefer, Rotföhre, Weißkiefer, Forche, SE: Tall||The request concerns the needle extract of Pinus sylvestris. In addition the use of cones, needles, bud, bark and young shoots are authorized only in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Pinus sylvestris, commonly known as the Scots Pine, is a species of pine native to Europe and Asia, ranging from Scotland, Ireland and Portugal in the west, east to eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains, and as far north as well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia (including Lapland). It belongs to the plant family Pinaceae. In the north of its range, it occurs from sea level to 1,000 m, while in the south of its range it is a high altitude mountain tree, growing at 1,200–2,600 m altitude. It is readily identified by its combination of fairly short, blue-green leaves and orange-red bark.
493 Piper nigrum authorized EN: Black pepper, white pepper, BG: Cheren piper, DK: Sort Peber, NL: Zwarte peper, Witte peper, FI: Pippuri, SE: Peppar, ES: Pimentero, pimienta negra, PL: Pieprz czarny, PT: Pimenta-da-Índia, pimenta-comum, pimenta-negra, FR: Poivre noir, Poivrier noir, Poivrier blanc, DE: Pfeffer, GR: Mavro piperi, IS: Svartur pipar, IT: Pepe nero, NO: Ekte pepper||The edible part of the Piper nigrum (black pepper) is the fruit (originates from a drupe) and it is used as whole, immature or mature. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. In dried form, the fruit is often referred to as peppercorns. Peppercorns, and the powdered pepper derived from grinding them, may be described as black pepper, white pepper, red/pink pepper, and green pepper, though the terms pink peppercorns, red pepper, and green pepper are also used to describe the fruits of other, unrelated plants. Black pepper is native to South India and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is a small drupe five millimetres in diameter, dark red when fully mature, containing a single seed. Dried ground pepper is one of the most common spices in European cuisine and its descendants, having been known and prized since antiquity for both its flavour and its use as a medicine. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine.
1007 Pistacia lentiscus authorized The request concerns the use of "Olio di lentisco (oil obtained from Pistacia lentiscus berries)". The request was submitted to the Italian authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was established. Therefore, "Olio di lentisco (oil obtained from Pistacia lentiscus berries)" is not considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Pistacia lentiscus
215 Plantago afra unknown see Plantago psyllium L.
272 Plantago indica food_supplement Flohsamen (DE), psyllium seed (EN), zandwegbree (NL), babka piaskowa (PL), Tanchagem-da-África (PT), Zaragatoa (PT), liiv-teeleht (ET), jitrocel indický (CZ), Zaragatona de los arenales (ES), bolhamagfű (HU), Indijas ceļteka (LV), vrsta trpotca (SL), spanskt loppfrö (SE)||It belongs to the Plantaginaceae Family. It is an annual herb with an erect or diffuse, hairy, frequently branched stem. Psyllium seed is particularly rich in fibres and mucilage. Psyllium seed is capable of absorbing up to 10 times it´s own weight in water. Psyllium seed consists of 85 % water-soluble fibre.
273 Plantago ispaghula unknown see Plantago ovata
274 Plantago ovata authorized Psyllium-fröska, Loppfröskal, babka jajowata (PL), psyllium (FI) (CZ), indisches Psyllium, blondes Psyllium (DE), ispaghula (ET), jitrocel indický (CZ), Ispágula, Plántago (ES), útifű (HU), αρνόγλωσσο (EL), Ovālā ceļteka (LV), vrsta trpotca (SL), loppfrö (SE), psilio (PT)||Belongs to the Plantaginaceae Family. It is cultivated on large scale in western India. Psyllium seeds have the characteristic of mucilage formation to catch moisture.
275 Plantago psyllium authorized fleawort (EN), herbe aux puces (FR), vlozaad (NL), babka płesznik (PL), psilio (PT), psyllium, rohtoratamo (FIN), Sandwegerich, Flohkraut (DE), kirbuteeleht (ET), jitrocel indický (CZ), Zaragatona (ES), indiai útifű (HU), ψύλλιο (EL), vrsta trpotca (SL), loppfry, psyllium (SE)||It´s an annual, erect and glandular-hairy herb belonging to the Plantaginaceae Family. Psyllium seed is particularly rich in fibres and mucilage.Psyllium seed is capable of absorbing up to 10 times it´s own weight in water. weight in water. Psyllium seed consists of 85 % water-soluble fibre.
997 Pleurotus eryngii (dehydrated mycelium powder) forbidden The request concerns the use of Pleurotus eryngii dehydrated mycelium powder. The request was submitted to the Spanish authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Pleurotus eryngii dehydrated mycelium powder is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Pleurotus eryngii dehydrated mycelium powder
515 Pleurotus ostreatus (beta glucan from the mushroom) authorized EN: Oyster mushroom, FI: Osterivinokas, BG: Pripunka, DK: Almindelig Østershat, NL: Oesterzwam, FR: Pleurote ostracé, noiret, pleurotte en coquille, DE: Austernpilz, GR: Plevrotos, IS: Ostrusveppur, SE: Ostronskivling, ES: Seta común, seta de ostra, PL: Boczniak ostrygowaty, PT: Gírbola de pollancre, repolgas, IT: Agarico ostricato, NO: Østerssopp||The request concerns "beta glucan" from oyster mushroom. Pleurotus ostreatus or Oyster mushroom, is a common mushroom in the plant family Pleurotaceae.
998 Pleurotus ostreatus (dehydrated mycelium powder) forbidden The request concerns the use of Pleurotus ostreatus dehydrated mycelium powder. The request was submitted to the Spanish authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Pleurotus ostreatus dehydrated mycelium powder is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Pleurotus ostreatus dehydrated mycelium powder
351 Polyacetyl-glucosamine food_supplement Chitosan (DE), chitin, chitozan (PL), Poliacetil-glucosamina (ES) (PT), kitosaani (FI), polyacetylglukosamin (CZ), poliacetil-glükózamin (HU), πολυακετυλο-γλυκοζαμίνη (EL), Hitozāns, hitīns (LV), hitozan (SL), polüatsetüülglükoosamiin, kitosaan (ET)||Chitosan is the general name of chitin and its derivatives, which is natural polymer processed and extracted from shells of invertebrate crustacean living in rivers, lakes or ocean.
784 Polydextrose authorized Polydextrose is an indigestable synthetic polymer of dextrose, produced from the naturally occurring components, glucose, sorbitol and citric acid. It is authorized as a food additive in the EU and listed as E number E1200.
278 Polymnia edulis unknown see Smallanthus sonchifolius<./i>
279 Polymnia sonchifolia unknown see Smallanthus sonchifolius<./i>
697 Polypodium aureum unknown see Phlebodium aureum
698 Polypodium leucotomos unknown see Phlebodium aureum
999 Polyporus umbellatus (dehydrated mycelium powder) forbidden The request concerns the use of Polyporus umbellatus dehydrated mycelium powder. The request was submitted to the Spanish authorities under Article 4 of Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. It was concluded that the history of consumption in the EU was not established. Therefore, Polyporus umbellatus dehydrated mycelium powder is considered a novel food. The outcome is also published on the following Commission's link https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en under the entry Polyporus umbellatus dehydrated mycelium powder
462 Polyporus versicolor unknown see Coriolus versicolor
280 Porphyra tenera authorized Asakusanori, szkarłatnica delikatna (PL), nori -merilevä (FI), Nori (DE) (PT), mořská řasa Nori (CZ), nori (DK), vrsta alge (SL), purpurtång (SE)||Red algae cultivated in Japan.
824 Portulaca oleracea authorized EN: Purslane, Common Purslane, Verdolaga, Pigweed, Little Hogweed, Pusley, BG: Tuchenica, DK: Køkkenportulak, NL: Postelein, FI: Vihannesportulakka, FR: Pourpier des jardins, pourpier potager, DE: Gartenportulak, Portulak, GR: Adracla, glystrida, IS: Súpugull, IT: Porcellana, portulata, NO: Matportulakk, portulakk, PT: Beldroaga, PL: Portulanka pospolita, ES: Verdolaga, SE: Trädgårdsportlak||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of leaves and stem of Portulaca oleracea. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Portulaca oleracea (Purslane, Common Purslane, Verdolaga, Pigweed, Little Hogweed, or Pusley), is an annual succulent in the family Portulacaceae, which can reach 40 cm in height. About 40 varieties are currently cultivated. It has an extensive old-world distribution extending from North Africa through the Middle East and the Indian Subcontinent to Malesia and Australasia. It has smooth, reddish, mostly prostrate stems and alternate leaves clustered at stem joints and ends. The yellow flowers have five regular parts and are up to 6 mm wide. The flowers appear depending upon rainfall and may occur year-round. The flowers open singly at the center of the leaf cluster for only a few hours on sunny mornings. Seeds are formed in a tiny pod, which opens when the seeds are ready. Purslane has a taproot with fibrous secondary roots and is able to tolerate poor, compacted soils and drought. Although purslane is considered a weed in the United States, it can be eaten as a leaf vegetable. It has a slightly sour and salty taste and is eaten throughout much of Europe, the middle east, Asia, and Mexico. Purslane can be used fresh as a salad, stir-fried, or cooked like spinach, and because of its mucilaginous quality it is also suitable for soups and stews.
501 Pouteria lucuma unknown See Lucuma obovata.
281 Pouteria obovata unknown see lucuma obovata
1039 Product made from the seed coats of chickpeas and maize dextrin authorized The request concerns the use of product made from the seed coats of chickpeas (testa of Cicer arietinum seeds) and maize dextrin. According to the conclusion reached by the German competent authorities in response to a request submitted pursuant to the requirements of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/456 (https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en) on the procedural steps of the consultation process for determination of novel food status, the product made from the seed coats of chickpeas (testa of Cicer arietinum seeds) and maize dextrin is considered not novel.
825 Prunus cerasifera authorized EN: Cherry-plum tree, myrobalan-plum tree, cherry plum, myrobalan plum, BG: Djanka, DK: Mirabel, ES: Ciruelo silvestre, SE: Körsbärsplommon, NL: Kerspruim, FI: Kirsikkaluumu, FR: Mirobalan, prunier cerise, DE: Kirschpflaume, IT: Visciola, amarella, marasco, ciliegio, NO: Myrobalanplomme, kirsebærplomme, PT: Abrunheiro, PL: Mirabelka||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of fruits (derives from a drupe) of Prunus cerasifera. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Prunus cerasifera is a species of plum known by the common names cherry plum and myrobalan plum. It belongs to the plant family Rosaceae subfam. Amygdaloideae (Amygdalaceae) and is native to Europe and Asia. Wild types are large shrubs or small trees reaching 6-15 meters tall, with deciduous leaves 4 to 6 centimeters long. It is one of the first European trees to flower in spring, often starting in mid-February. The flowers are white and about 2 centimeters across, with five petals. The fruit is a drupe 2 or 3 centimeters in diameter and yellow or red in colour. It is edible, and reaches maturity from early-July to mid-September. Cultivated cherry plums can have fruits, foliage, and flowers in any of several colors. Some varieties have sweet fruits that can be eaten fresh, while others are sour and better for making jam.
499 Prunus persica pending EN: Peach, Nectarine, BG: Trunkoslivka, Nektarina, DK: Fersken, Nektarin, NL: Perzik, Nectarine, Persica vulgaris, FI: Persikka, Nektariini, FR: Pêcher, brugnonier, Nectarine, Pêcher commun, DE: Pfirsich, Nektarine, GR: Rodacinia, Nektarinia, IS: Ferskja, Nektarína, IT: Pesco, persico, NO: Fersken, Nektarin, PT: Pessegueiro, Nectarina, PL: Brzoskwinia, Brzoskwinia nektarynka, ES: Melocotón, Nectarina, SE: Persika, Nektarin||The request concerns extracts of the leaves. The peach tree (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree growing to 4–10 m (13–33 ft) tall, belonging to the subfamily Prunoideae of the family Rosaceae subfam. Amygdaloideae (Amygdaloideae). It bears an edible juicy fruit called a peach. The peach is a species of Prunus native to China, where it was first cultivated. It is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus within the genus Prunus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. The leaves are lanceolate, 7–16 cm (2.8–6.3 in) long, 2–3 cm (0.79–1.2 in) broad, pinnately veined. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; they are solitary or paired, 2.5–3 cm diameter, pink, with five petals. The fruit has yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, and a skin that is either velvety (peaches) or smooth (nectarines) in different cultivars. The flesh is very delicate and easily bruised in some cultivars, but is fairly firm in some commercial varieties, especially when green. The single, large seed is red-brown, oval shaped, approximately 1.3–2 cm long, and is surrounded by a wood-like husk. Peaches, along with cherries, plums and apricots, are stone fruits (drupes).
646 Prunus salicina authorized EN: Japanese plum, BG: Iaponska sliva, DK: Japansk Blomme, FI: Japaninluumu, FR: Prunier japonais, DE: Japanische Pflaume, IS: Japansplóma, IT: Susino, NO: Salicinaplomme, PT: Ameixieirajaponesa, PL: Sliwa japonska, ES: Ciruelo japonés, SE: Japanskt plommon||The fruits (derived from a drupe) of Prunus salicina (Japanese plum) are used as food in the EU before 15 May 1997. Prunus salicina (syn. Prunus triflora or Prunus thibetica; also called Chinese plum or Japanese plum) is a small deciduous tree native to China, and now also grown in Korea, Japan, the United States, and Australia. It belongs to the plant family Rosaceae subfam. Amygdaloideae (Amygdalaceae). It grows up to 10 m tall, and has reddish-brown shoots. The leaves are 6-12 cm long and 2.5-5 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The flowers are produced in early spring, 2 cm diameter with five white petals. The fruit is a drupe 4-7 cm in diameter with yellow-pink flesh; it can be harvested in the summer. When fully ripe it can be eaten raw.
826 Prunus spinosa authorized NO: Slåpetorn, EN: Blackthorn, sloe, BG: Trunka, DK: Slåen, NL: Sleedoorn, FI: Oratuomi, FR: Epine noire, Prunellier, Epine noir, Prunier épineux, DE: Schwarzdorn, Schlehe, GR: Tsapurnia, IS: Þyrniplóma, IT: Prugnolo, prunello, pruno selvatico, vegro, sgancio, PT: Abrunheiro bravo, PL: Sliwa tarnina, ES: Endrina, SE: Slån||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of fruits (originates from a drupe) of Prunus spinosa. In addition the use of leaves and flowers of blackthorn or sloe are authorized in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Prunus spinosa (blackthorn or sloe) is a species of Prunus native to Europe, western Asia, and locally in northwest Africa. It is also locally naturalised in New Zealand and eastern North America. It belongs to the plant family Rosaceae subfam. Amygdaloideae (Amygdalaceae). Prunus spinosa is a deciduous large shrub or small tree growing to 5 m tall, with blackish bark and dense, stiff, spiny branches. The leaves are oval, 2–4.5 cm long and 1.2–2 cm broad, with a serrated margin. The flowers are 1.5 cm diameter, with five creamy-white petals; they are produced shortly before the leaves in early spring, and are hermaphroditic and insect-pollinated. The fruit, called a "sloe", is a drupe 10–12 millimetres (0.39–0.47 in) in diameter, black with a purple-blue waxy bloom, ripening in autumn, and harvested — traditionally, at least in the UK, in October or November after the first frosts. Sloes are thin-fleshed, with a very strongly astringent flavour when fresh.
827 Psidium guineense authorized IT: Guava della Guinea, EN: Brasilian guava, Guinea guaava, guisaro, DK: Brasiliansk Guava, Aracá, FR: Goyavier du Brésil, DE: Stachelbeerguave, PT: Araçá, araçáamarelo, PL: Gwajawa brazylijska, ES: Guayaba ágria, guisaro||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of fruits (botanically berry) of Psidium guineense. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Guavas are plants in the myrtle family (Myrtaceae) genus Psidium (meaning "pomegranate" in Latin), which contains about 100 species of tropical shrubs and small trees. They are native to Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Guavas are now cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics in Southeast Asia, Hawaii, the Caribbean, Florida and Africa. Guavas are cultivated in many tropical and subtropical countries for their edible fruit. Several species are grown commercially; apple guava (P. guajava) and its cultivars are those most commonly traded internationally. An other species of guava that has been used as food in the EU before 15 May 1997 is Psidium guineense that is Brasilian guava, Guinea guaava or guisaro. Guava fruit, usually 4 to 12 cm long, are round or oval depending on the species. The outer skin may be rough, often with a bitter taste, or soft and sweet. Varying between species, the skin can be any thickness, is usually green before maturity, but becomes yellow, maroon, or green when ripe. Guava fruit generally have a pronounced and typical fragrance, similar to lemon rind but less sharp. Guava pulp may be sweet or sour, off-white ("white" guavas) to deep pink ("red" guavas), with the seeds in the central pulp of variable number and hardness, depending on species.
282 Ptychopetalum olacoides food_supplement Muira puama (PT) (ES), potency wood (EN), marapuama, Potenzholz (DE), Ptychopetalum oalksowe (PL), muira puama (FI) (SL) (CZ), lubav potentsipuu (ET), búgató (HU)||Shrub or small tree up to 5 m in height and native from the Brazilian Amazon and other parts of northern Brazil. The small white flowers have a pungent fragrance similar to jasmine.
283 Pueraria lobata food_supplement Kudzu (EN, ES, PT, LV, NL, FR), Opornik łatkowaty (PL), Kutzu (FI, CZ), Kudzubohne, Kudzu (Pflanze) (DE), Hõlmine pueraaria (ET), Kudzubab gyökér (HU), Kujibønne (DK), Kudzuböna (SE)||The request concerns the roots, leaves and the flowers of Pueraria lobata. Alcohol extracts made from Pueraria lobata fall under Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 on novel foods. Pueraria lobata is a species of plant in the botanical family Fabaceae (Leguminosae). At least three sub-species (alternatively called varieties) are known. It is closely related to other species in the genus Pueraria (P. edulis, P. phaseoloides and P. thomsonii) and the common name kudzu is used for all of these species and hybrids between them. The morphological differences between them are subtle, they can breed with each other, and it appears that introduced kudzu populations in the United States have ancestry from more than one of the species. The starch from the root of Pueraria lobata is not novel in foods
284 Pueraria mirifica forbidden kwao kreu, opornik dziwny (PL), kwao krua (CZ), kujibønne (DK)||Plant belonging to the Leguminosae Family and native to Thailand where it is also known as white kwao kreu.
442 Pueraria thunbergiana unknown Kudzu||See Pueraria lobata.
540 Punica granatum pending ES: Granada, EN: Pomegranate, EL: ρόδι, DE: Granatapfel, IT: Melograno, CZ: Granátovník obecný, FR: Pomme Grenade, grenadier, FI: Granaattiomena, GR: Rodia, IS: Granatepli, NO: Granateple, PT: Romanzeira, PL: Granat, SE: Granatäpple, BG: Nar, DK: Granatæble, NL: Granaatappel, Granaatboom||The requests concerns the use of fruit oil and rind of Punica granatum. The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to between five and eight metres tall. The pomegranate is native to the region from Iran to the Himalayas in northern India and has been cultivated and naturalized over the whole Mediterranean region and the Caucasus since ancient times. It is widely cultivated throughout Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, India, Pakistan, Syria, Turkey, the drier parts of southeast Asia, Peninsular Malaysia, the East Indies, and tropical Africa. Introduced into Latin America and California by Spanish settlers in 1769, pomegranate is now cultivated in parts of California and Arizona for juice production. It belongs to the plant family Punicaceae. The leaves are opposite or sub-opposite, glossy, narrow oblong, entire, 3–7 cm long and 2 cm broad. The flowers are bright red, 3 cm in diameter, with four to five petals (often more on cultivated plants). The fruit is between a lemon and a grapefruit in size, 5–12 cm in diameter with a rounded hexagonal shape, and has thick reddish skin and around 600 seeds. The seeds and surrounding pulp, ranging in color from white to deep red, called arils, are edible; indeed, the fruit of the pomegranate is a berry. There are some cultivars which have been introduced that have a range of pulp colors such as purple.
285 Pyrethrum parthenium unknown see Chrysanthemum parthenium
1034 Quercetin-zein forbidden The request concerns the use of encapsulated Quercetin-zein. According to the conclusion reached by the Spanish competent authorities (Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition) in response to a request submitted pursuant to the requirements of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/456 (https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en) on the procedural steps of the consultation process for determination of novel food status, encapsulated Quercetin-zein is considered novel food.
1017 Quercus rotundifolia authorized PT: Bolota de Azinheira, EN: Sweet acorn||The information available concerns the use of the fruit, the acorn of Quercus rotundifolia Lam. The holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.), belongs to the plant family Fagaceae. It is a tree that can reach on average 8-20 meter high. Broad crown, dense and rounded, with the trunk covered by a gray bark, thick and crosslinked, its leaves are persistent, alternate, simple, round and lance-shaped, margin entire or toothed-espinosa, poignant, petiole up to 1.5 cm long, leathery. Flowering occurs between March and June and its fruit, the acorn, with a dome shaped thimble covered by small squama almost flat, matures in November. This acorn is the sweetest of the plant genus Quercus. Several indications show human consumption from the distant past to the present day. Acorn is consumed baked or boiled, in the form of liquor or as coffee substitutes, for example. The acorn flour is also used to make bread, desserts, among others.
286 Rauwolfia vomitoria forbidden African serpentwood (EN), rauwolfia (NL), rauwolfia wymiotna (PL), Teufelspfeffer (DE), öök-rauvolfia (ET), rdesno (CZ), afrikai kígyófa (HU), Āfrikas čūskkoks (LV), vrsta rauvolfije (SL), kräkbuske (SE)||Belonging to the Apocynaceae Family and native to Africa and India.
1013 Red clay sea salt authorized EN: Alaea salt, Hawaiian red salt||It is an unrefined sea salt that has been mixed with iron oxide rich volcanic clay called ‘alaea’, which gives the seasoning salt its characteristic brick red color. The salt is considered not novel in food.
287 Renealmia nutans unknown see Alpinia speciosa
1014 Rhamnogalacturonan-rich pectin hydrolysate forbidden This is a food subject to a request to Ireland submitted pursuant to the requirements of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/456 on the procedural steps of the consultation process for determination of novel food status. The outcome of the request is that the product is novel. The outcome is also publicly available on this website under the consultation process (https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food/consultation-process_en)
288 Rhaponticum carthamoides unknown see Stemmacantha carthamoides
289 Rhodiola Rosea food_supplement Golden root (EN), Orpin rose (FR), Rosenwurz (DE), Raíz del Ártico (ES), Rozewortel (NL), Almindelig rosenrod (DK), Ruusujuuri (FI)||A plant native in arctic regions predominant in Scandinavia and Siberia. According to the information available only the use of following plant parts is authorized for use in food supplements: root and herb of the plant.
290 Rhodymenia palmata authorized kuntze, dulse, dillisk, rodymenia palczasta (brunatnica) (PL), dulse (FIN), Rotalge (DE), červená řasa (CZ), vörös pálmaalga (HU), Sarkanā aļģe (LV), rödsallat (SE)||see Palmaria palmata L.
353 Ribose food_supplement D-Ribose (DE), ryboza (PL), Ribose (PT), riboosi (FI), riboos (ET), ribóza (CZ), Ribosa (ES), ribóz (HU), ριβόζη (EL), D-riboze (LV), riboza (SL)||D-ribose is a five-carbon sugar (pentose with the molecular formula C5H10O5 and the CAS No. 50-69-1) chemically related to other 5 carbon sugars, such as arabinose and xylose and found primarily in ribonucleic acid and in all living cells. Ribose and its related compound, deoxyribose, are the building blocks of the backbone chains in nucleic acids, better known as DNA and RNA.
292 Richeria grandis food_supplement Bois bande, richeria wielka (PL), suur marbripuu (ET)||Belongs to the Olacaceae Family. Native to South America (Brazil) the part used are roots or barks. An alkaloid called ´muirapuamin´ is contained in red part of the inner bark.
817 Rorippia nasturtium-aquatica unknown see Nasturtium officinale
828 Rosa canina authorized BG: Shipka, EN: Dog rose, wild rose, DK: Hunderose, NL: Hondsroos, FI: Koiranruusu, FR: Eglantier, Cynorrhodon, rose de chien, rosier des chiens, rosier sauvage, Eglantier commun, DE: Hundsrose, GR: Agriotriantafilia, arcomuschetia, IS: Hundarós, IT: Rosa montana, rosa canina, NO: Steinnype, PT: Roseira-brava, PL: Roza dzika, ES: Rosa silvestre, escaramujo, SE: Stenros||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of the fruits (botanically hips) of Rosa canina. In addition the use of flowers, young shoots and leaf buds of dog rose or wild rose are authorized in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Rosa canina (commonly known as the dog rose) is a variable scrambling rose species native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia. It belongs to the plant family Rosaceae. It is a deciduous shrub normally ranging in height from 1–5 m, though sometimes it can scramble higher into the crowns of taller trees. Its stems are covered with small, sharp, hooked prickles, which aid it in climbing. The leaves are pinnate, with 5-7 leaflets. The flowers are usually pale pink, but can vary between a deep pink and white. They are 4–6 cm diameter with five petals, and mature into an oval 1.5–2 cm red-orange fruit, or hip.
293 Rosa moschata food_supplement Rose hip oil (EN), muskusroos (NL), róża piżmowa (PL), Rosa mosqueta (ES) (PT), myskiruusu (FI), Mochusrose (DE), muskus-kibuvits (ET), růže pižmová (CZ), chilei vadrózsa (HU), moskusrose (DK), Savvaļas roze (LV), olje iz izvlečkov listov vrtnice (SL), moschataros (SE), Μουσκιά / Μουσχετιά (EL)||Plant native to the Mediterranean region and belonging to the Rosaceae Family. The oil extracted from the seeds is of special importance.
951 Rosa rubiginosa authorized Fruits and petals from Rosa rubiginosa L. are not novel. However, the seeds of the plant are considered not novel in food supplements
754 Rozites caperatus authorized Gypsy mushroom (EN), Kehnäsieni (FI), Rynkad tofsskivling (SE), Reifpilz (DE), La pholiote ridée ou champignon des tziganes (FR), Cortinarius caperatus||Rozites caperatus (or Cortinarius caperatus), commonly known as the gypsy mushroom, is a highly esteemed edible mushroom of the genus Cortinarius found in northern regions of Europe and North America. The ochre-coloured fruiting bodies appear in autumn in coniferous and beech woods, as well as heathlands in late summer and autumn. The gills are free and clay-coloured and the smell and taste mild. Although mild-tasting and highly regarded, the gypsy mushroom is often infested with maggots.
764 Rubus arcticus authorized Arctic raspberry, Arctic bramble (EN), Mesimarja (FI), Åkerbär (SE), Allackerbeere (DE), Княженика (RU), Framboise arctique (FR), チシマイチゴ (JP)||The edible part of Rubus arcticus is the berry. The arctic raspberry is a perennial herb with a 10–25 cm tall, erect stem. Its trifoliolate leaves are green with toothed margins. The arctic raspberry is both insect- and self-pollinated. Its flowers are red or purplish red and usually solitary. The flowers bloom in June–July. The berry is dark red, greenish, brownish or nearly black and is a fragrant and flavourful aggregate of drupes. The berry is firmly attached to the base and does not separate from it when picked.
450 Rubus chamaemorus authorized Cloudberry (EN), Ostružiník moruška (CZ), Malina moroszka (PL), Lakka, hilla, valokki, suomuurain, muurain (FI), Hjortron (SE), Moltebeere, Sumpf-beere, Moltbeere, Arktische Brombeere (DE), Mûre arctique, framboisier jaune (FR), Морошка (RU), クラウドベリー (ホロムイイチゴ)(JP), Multebær (DK), Kruipbraam, gele bosbraam (NL), Múltuber (IS), Rovo artico (IT), Molte (NO), Silva (PT), Mora de los pantanos (ES)||The request concerns the fruits (drupetum) of Rubus chamaemorus. The cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) is a slow-growing alpine or sub-Arctic species of Rubus, producing amber-colored edible fruits (drupetum). It belongs to the plant family Rosaceae. The botanical name (chamæmorus) derives from the Greek khamai ("on the ground") and moros ("mulberry"). Cloudberry is the name for both the plant and the fruit. Cloudberry should not be confused with salmonberry, although the fruit looks similar. The cloudberry grows to 10-25 cm high. The leaves alternate between having 5 and 7 soft, handlike lobes on straight, branchless stalks. After pollination, the white (sometimes reddish-tipped) flowers form raspberry-sized berries. Encapsulating between 5 and 25 drupelets, each fruit is initially pale red, ripening into an amber colour in early autumn. Cloudberries occur naturally throughout the Northern Hemisphere from 78°N, south to about 55°N, and very scattered south to 44°N mainly in mountainous areas. In Europe and Asia, they grow in the Nordic countries, especially in Finland and much in the Baltic states; sometimes in the moorlands of Britain and Ireland, and across northern Russia east to the Pacific Ocean. Small populations are also found further south, as a botanical vestige of the Ice Ages; it is found in Germany's Weser and Elbe valleys, where it is under legal protection. In North America, cloudberries grow wild across most of Canada / Alaska, and in the lower 48 states of the United States in northern Minnesota, New Hampshire, Maine, and a small population on Long Island, New York.
294 Rubus suavissimus authorized Chinese blackberry (EN), jeżyna chińska (PL), ostružiník (CZ), Ķīniešu kazenes (LV)||Belongs to the Rosaceae Family. Dried leaves are used as ingredient to tea/herbal infusions.
830 Rumex acetosa unknown see Rumex rugosus
942 Rumex crispus authorized The information available concerns the use of leaves of Rumex crispus. In addition, the use of all plant parts are considered to be not novel food ingredients in food supplements (Belgium list of plants). The curly dock (Rumex crispus) is a ruderal plant and belongs to the plant family Polygonaceae. It is a perennial plant, up to 1.3 meters high, owning one or more stems per foot, erect, with well-marked streaks. The basal leaves are oblong-lanceolate; but upper leaves are smaller, lanceolate and sub sessile and also wavy in the margin. The inflorescence is more or less dense with the simple main branches or ramosos and the middle and upper contiguous whorls or almost contiguous. The food consumption of curly dock’s leaves is observed for several evidences over the years. The leaves are used in soups, salads or with beans, for example.
829 Rumex rugosus authorized BG: Gradinski kiselec, EN: Garden sorrel, common sorrel, sorrel, spinach dock, narrow-leaved dock, DK: Havesyre, NL: Zuring, Veldzuring, PT: Azedas, vinagreira, azeda, PL: Szczaw ogrodowy, ES: Acedera, acedera de jardin, SE: Ängssyra, Rumex acetosa, FI: Tarhasuolaheinä, DE: Garten-Sauerampfer, IT: Acetosa, erba brusca, saleggiola, NO: Matsyre, FR: Grand oseille, oseille commune, surelle, Oseille sauvage, Oseille des prés, Oseille||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of leaves of Rumex rugosus (garden sorrel). In addition the use of flowers, root and seeds of garden sorrel is authorized in food supplement use (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements).). Common sorrel or garden sorrel (Rumex rugosus, synon. Rumex acetosa), often simply called sorrel, is a perennial herb that is cultivated as a garden herb or leaf vegetable (pot herb). Other names for sorrel include spinach dock and narrow-leaved dock. It belongs to the plant family Polygonaceae. Sorrel is a slender plant about 60 cm high, with roots that run deep into the ground, as well as juicy stems and edible, oblong leaves. The lower leaves are 7 to 15 cm in length, slightly arrow-shaped at the base, with very long petioles. The upper ones are sessile, and frequently become crimson. It has whorled spikes of reddish-green flowers, which bloom in summer, becoming purplish. The stamens and pistils are on different plants (dioecious); the ripe seeds are brown and shining. Common sorrel has been cultivated for centuries. The leaves may be puréed in soups and sauces or added to salads; they have a flavour that is similar to kiwifruit or sour wild strawberries. The plant's sharp taste is due to oxalic acid, which is a poison. In small quantities sorrel is harmless; in large quantities it can be fatal.
295 Ruscus aculeatus food_supplement Butchers broom, knee holly, box holly, sweet broom (EN), muizedoorn (NL), petit houx (FR), fragon, ruszczyk kolczasty (PL), Gilbardeira (PT), pikkuruskus (FI), stechender Mäusedorn (DE), torkav ruskus (ET), listnatec bodlinatý (CZ), Rusco (ES), szúrós csodabogyó (HU), bodeča lobodika (SL), stickmyrten (SE)||A low evergreen plant of the Liliacae Family that grows throughout southern Europe and the Mediterranean. Part used: root or rhizome, collected in autumn. The whole herb is also collected.
751 Russula claroflava authorized Yellow swamp russula, yellow swamp brittlegill (EN), Keltahapero (FI), Gulkremla (SE), Gerber graustieltäubling (DE), Russule jaune clair (FR)||Russula claroflava, commonly known as the yellow swamp russula or yellow swamp brittlegill, is a basidiomycete mushroom of the plant family Russulaceae and genus Russula. It is found in wet places under birch and aspen woodlands across Europe and North America. It has a yellow cap, white gills and stipe and bruises grey. It is mild-tasting and regarded as good to eat. This medium sized member of the genus Russula has a cap that is an egg-yolk yellow. Measuring 4–10 cm (1.5 4 in) in diameter, it is slightly sticky, and leaves and other debris often stick to it. There is usually a slight depression in the centre of mature specimens, with the margin becoming furrowed. The cap is half peeling. The 4–10 cm (1.5–4 in) high stem is white, fairly firm, straight and 1–2 cm thick. Its gills are pale ochre, and are adnexed to almost free. All parts turn dark grey on aging or bruising. The smell is fruity and the spore print is pale ochre, and the oval warty spores average 9.5 x 8 μm. The edible but acrid Russula ochroleuca resembles this species, but has a duller yellow cap.
750 Russula decolorans authorized Copper Brittlegill (EN), Kangashapero (FI), Tegelkremla (SE), Orangeroter Graustieltäubling (DE), Russule Décolorante (FR)||Russula decolorans is an edible, Russula mushroom, found in groups in coniferous forests. It belongs to the plant family Russulaceae. The cap is convex, with a depressed centre when old, often brick-red and slippery when young. The cap grows up to 10 cm. The flesh is white and turns grey when old. It has a mild taste. The spores are pale ochre.
749 Russula paludosa authorized Russule palustre (FR), Tall russula (EN), Isohapero (FI), Storkremla (SE), Apfeltäubling (DE)||Russula paludosa is an edible species of mushroom within the large Russula genus. It is common to Europe and North America. The cap is convex to depressed and is coloured a distinctive bloody red, pink, crimson or purple. Sometimes it may show a yellowish or orange tinge in the centre. It may measure between 6 and 20 cm in diameter. The flesh is white with a mild taste and without scent; it quickly becomes soft and spongy and also greyish. The widely spaced gills are cream coloured when young, and become yellow with age. They are decurrent with a lot of interspacing gills and are generally thin. Their edges may sometimes occur reddish. The amyloid, elli spores measure 8–10 by 7–10 μm are warty and are covered by an incomplete mesh. The stem is white, sometimes with a pink hue, slightly clubbed. It may measure 5 to 15 cm in height and up to 3 cm in diameter.
752 Russula vinosa authorized Darkening Brittlegill (EN), Viinihapero (FI), Vinkremla (SE), Weinroter Graustieltäubling (DE), Russule vineuse (FR), Russula obscura||Around 750 worldwide species of mycorrhizal mushrooms compose the genus Russula. They are typically common, fairly large, and brightly colored - making them one of the most recognizable genera among mycologists and mushroom collectors. Their distinguishing characteristics include a white to dark yellow spore print, brittle free white gills, and an absence of partial veil or volva tissue on the stem. Members of the related Lactarius genus have similar characteristics but emit a milky latex when their gills are broken. Russula means reddish. Russula vinosa (syn. Russula obscura) has a cap of 5-15cm across; pale to dark blood red or livid purple; peeling only at margin. Gills are somewhat distant; pale buff. Stem is 40-150 x 15-30mm; white, flushing grayish black when bruised or with age. Flesh is white, blackening. Odor is not distinctive and taste is mild.
354 Rutin food_supplement Rutoside, Rutin (DE), quercetin-3-rutinoside, rutozyd (PL), rutyna (PL), rutiini, rutosidi (FI), rutiin (ET), rutin (CZ) (HU) (ES) (SL), ρουτίνη (EL), Rutīns (LV)||Rutin is a bioflavonoid found in many plants.
954 Saccharina latissima authorized See Laminaria saccharina
374 Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein authorized The request concerns Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein obtained by a conventional physical and enzymatic process. This yeast protein and its components are normally consumed through yeast and yeast extracts present in food.
930 Salacia reticulata food_supplement The request concerns the use of Salacia reticulata root in food supplements. Salacia reticulata is a large woody climbing shrub native to Sri Lanka and Southern regions of India.
248 Salicornia europea authorized Marsh samphire (EN), zeekraal (NL), soliród zielny (PL), suolayrtti (FI), harilik soolarohi (ET), slanorožec evropský (CZ), sziksófű (HU), Salikornija (LV), vrsta osočnika (SL), glasört (SE)||Salicornia europea belonging to the Amaranthaceae Family is a well known annual halophyte. Its main morphological characteristic shows its adaptation to the presence of salt: the accumulation of fresh water (90%) in its tissues gives it this pulpy characteristic. There are several kinds of Salicornia which are divided into two main categories: - the perennial Salicornia : its woody stem excludes any exploitation - the annual Salicornia. It is green and tender during the growing period, ideal moment for harvest in autumn, it becomes woody and takes a purple colour which illuminates the shore. In la Baie de Somme, Salicornia is mainly harvested from the end of May to the end of July.
251 Salvia hispanica forbidden Chia sage, Spanish chia (EN), szałwia hiszpańska (PL), chia (FI) (ES), Chia (DE), šalvěj španělská (CZ), spanyolzsálya (HU), španska kadulja (SL), salvia-art (SE)||The Commission Decision 2009/827/EC authorised the placing on the market of Chia (Salvia hispanica) seeds as a novel food ingredient, to be used in bread products with a maximum content of 5 % Chia (Salvia hispanica) seeds. The Commission Implementing Decision 2013/50/EU has authorised an extension of the use of Chia seed -no more than 10% -in baked products, breakfast cereals, fruit nut and seed mixes, and the marketing of pre-packed chia seeds. Additional labelling of pre-packaged Chia seeds is required to inform the consumer that the daily intake is no more than 15 g/day. Chia seed as such may be sold to the final consumer in a pre-packaged form only. The authorisation letter from Ireland (18 September 2015) has authorised an extension of the use of Chia seeds in fruit juices and fruit juice blends. Chia (Salvia hispanica)is a summer annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Labiatae Family. The species originated in mountainous areas extending from West Central Mexico to Northern Guatemala. Chia seeds require sub-tropical conditions for their growth.
447 Salvia miltiorrhiza pending CZ: Čínská šalvěj, DE: Rotwurzel-Salbei, FI: Punasalvia, EN: Red sage, NL: Rode salie, FR: Sauge de Chine||The request concerns the root extract of Salvia militiorrhiza. According to the information available (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements) only the use of following plant parts is authorized: root. Salvia miltiorrhiza (Tan Shen, Chinese sage, Red-rooted sage) is a shade-growing perennial flowering plant in the genus Salvia.
832 Satureja hortensis authorized EN: Summer savory, BG: Gradinska chubrica, chubritsa, чубрица, ES: Ajedrea común, saborida, ajadrea, IT: Savoria, santoreggia, savoreggia, coniella, DK: Almindelig Sar, NL: Bonenkruid, Bonekruid, FI: Kesäkynteli, RO: Cimbru, HU: Borsikafű, DE: Bohnenkraut, FR: Sarriette des jardins, savourée, sarriette, Sarriette commune, GR: Trumbi, θρούμπι, throúbi, IS: Sumarsar, Baunajurt, NO: Sar, sommersar, bønneurt, pepperurt, fattigmanspepper, PT: Segurelha, SE: Sommarkyndel, PL: Cząber ogrodowy||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of leaves and shoots of Satureja hortensis (summer savory). According to the information in Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements aerial parts are authorized in food supplements. Summer savory (Satureja hortensis) is the better known of the savory species belonging to the plant family Lamiaceae (Labiatae). It is an annual, but otherwise is similar in use and flavor to the perennial winter savory. It is used more often than winter savory, as winter savory is thought to have a slightly more bitter flavor. This herb has lilac tubular flowers which bloom from July to September. It grows to around 30 to 60 cm (0.98 to 2.0 ft) in height and has very slender, bronze-green leaves.
532 Schinus terebinthifolius authorized EN: Brazilian pepper, Aroeira, Florida holly, Rose Pepper, Christmasberry, NO: Brasiliansk peppertre, PT: Aroeira-mansa, aroeira-vermelha, falsa pimenta, PL: Pieprz rozowy, ES: Copal, pimienta de Brasil, SE: Brasiliansk rosépeppar, DK: Rosapeber, FI: Roseepippuri, FR: Faux-poivrier à feuilles de térébinthe, DE: Rosa Pfeffer, IS: Rósapipar, IT: Pepe rosa||The edible part of Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian peppertree) is the fruit (drupe). Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius; also known as Aroeira, Florida holly, Rose Pepper, and Christmasberry) is a sprawling shrub or small tree (7-10 m tall) that is native to subtropical and tropical South America, in southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. In addition, this plant is found in the following states of Brazil: Alagoas, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, and Sergipe. The branches can be upright, reclining, or nearly vine-like, all on the same plant. The leaves are alternate, 10-22 cm long, pinnately compound with (3-) 5-15 leaflets; the leaflets are roughly oval (lanceolate to elliptical), 3-6 cm long and 2-3.5 cm broad, and have finely toothed margins, an acute to rounded apex and yellowish veins. The leaf rachis between the leaflets is usually (but not invariably) slightly winged. The plant is dioeceous, with small white flowers borne profusely in axillary clusters. The fruit is a small red spherical drupe 4-5 mm diameter, carried in dense clusters of hundreds of berries. There are two varieties: - Schinus terebinthifolius var. acutifolius. Leaves to 22 cm, with 7-15 leaflets; fruit pink. - Schinus terebinthifolius var. terebinthifolius. Leaves to 17 cm, with 5-13 leaflets; fruit red. Like many other species in the family Anacardiaceae, Brazilian pepper has aromatic sap that can cause skin reactions (similar to poison-ivy burns) in some sensitive people.
253 Schisandra chinensis authorized šizandra (LV), Kitajska shizandra (SL), Fjärilsranka (SE), Cytryniec chiński (PL), Sitruunaköynnös (FI), Chinesischer Limonenbaum (DE), Hiina sidrunväändik (ET), Kúszó magnolia (HU), Schisandra (DK, PT), Schisandra, Wu wei zu (EN, NL), Schisandra de Chine (FR)||Only the use of the berries (fruits) of Schizandra chinensis as food or food ingredient is established in the EU. In addition, the use of young boiled leaves is authorized in food supplement use (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Schizandra chinensis belongs to the plant family Schizandraceae. It is a creeping plant with small red berries native to Northern China.
255 Schizonepeta tenuifolia unknown see Nepeta tenuifolia
257 Sclerocarya birrea authorized Amarula, balsanowiec błękitnawy (PL), marula (FI) (CZ), Marulabaum (DE), maruula-elevandiõunapuu (ET), klanopraška čínská (CZ), Marula-fa (HU), Marula (LV), kaffirmarula (SE)||The Marula tree (member of the Anacardiaceae Family), grows mainly in the warm, frost-free regions of subequatorial Africa, and, with minimal rainfall, normally brings forth an abundant crop. Found at medium-low altitudes, in open woodlands and bush, this average-sized tree can be up to 10 metres tall.Only the use of the berries of Sclerocarya birrea as food or food ingredient is established in the EU.
666 Selenicerus megalanthus unknown see Hylocereus megalanthus
617 Senna alexandrina food_supplement EN: Egyptian senna, FR: Séné d’alexandrie , NL: Alexandrijnse senna||The request concerns the use of leaves and fruits of Senna alexandrina Mill. (synonyms: Cassia acutifolia Delile, Cassia alexandrina (Garsault) Thell., Cassia angustifolia M.Vahl, Cassia senna L., Senna acutifolia (Delile) Batka, Senna alexandrina Garsault, Senna angustifolia (Vahl) Batka) in food supplements. The history of consumption in the EU was established. Therefore, the leaves and fruits of this plant are considered not novel in food supplements. Other specific national legislation may restrict the placing on the market of this product as a food or food ingredient in some Member States. Therefore, it is recommended to check with the national competent authorities.
694 Serratiopeptidase forbidden The request concerns the use of serratiopeptidase in food supplements. According to IUBMB nomenclature, the accepted name is serralysin. EC number 3.4.24.40 and CAS number 70851-98-8
628 Sesamum indicum authorized EN: Sesame, beniseed, BG: Susam, DK: Indisk Sesam, NL: Sesamzaad, FI: Seesami, FR: Sésame, DE: Sesam, GR: Sisami, IS: Sesam, PT: Gergelim, sésamo, IT: Sesamo, giggiolena, NO: Sesam, PL: Sezam, ES: Sésamo, ajonjolí, SE: Sesam||The request concerns the oil of sesame. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum (plant family Pedalaceae). Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods (derived from a capsule). The flowers of the sesame seed plant are yellow, though they can vary in colour with some being blue or purple. It is an annual plant growing to 50 to 100 cm (2-3 feet) tall, with opposite leaves 4 to 14 cm (5.5 in) long with an entire margin; they are broad lanceolate, to 5 cm (2 in) broad, at the base of the plant, narrowing to just 1 cm (half an inch) broad on the flowering stem. The flowers are white to purple, tubular, 3 to 5 cm (1 to 2 in) long, with a four-lobed mouth.
339 Silver authorized Prata coloidal (PT), srebro koloidalne (PL), kolloidihopea (FI), kolloidales Silber (DE), kolloidne hõbe (ET), koloidální stříbro (CZ), kolloid ezüst (HU), κολλοειδής άργυρος (EL), Koloidāls sudrabs (LV), plata coloidal (ES), koloidno srebro (SL)||Colloidal silver is not a novel food but it is not authorised as a source of nutrient
943 Silybum marianum food_supplement EN: Milk thistle, NL: Mariadistel , FR: Chardon-marie, EE: Harilik maarjaohakas, HU: Máriatövis, ES: Cardo mariano , DE: Mariendistel||Silybum marianum L. (Gaertn.) is an annual or biennial plant of the Asteraceae family. This typical thistle has red to purple flowers and shiny pale green leaves with white veins.It grows 30 to 200 cm tall, having an overall conical shape with an approx. 160 cm max. diameter base. The leaves are oblong to lanceolate. They are either lobate or pinnate, with spiny edges. They are hairless, shiny green, with milk-white veins. The flower heads are 4 to 12 cm long and wide, of red-purple colour. The aerial parts of the plant are not novel in food supplements. Milkthistle Oil from the seeds is also used as vegetable oil for seasoning and thus is not novel in foods.
726 Sinocalamus oldhamii authorized Bamboo, bamboo cane, giant timber bamboo, Oldham's bamboo (EN), Bambuk (BG), Bambus (DK, DE, NO, PL), Bamboe (NL), Bambu (FI, SE), Bambou (FR), Calami babu (GR), Bambusreyr (IS), Bambù (IT), Bambú (PT, ES), Bambusa oldhamii||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the stem (botanically immature shoot) of Sinocalamus oldhamii. Sinocalamus oldhamii or Bambusa oldhamii, known as giant timber bamboo or Oldham's bamboo, is a large species of bamboo originating from Taiwan. It belongs to the plant family Poaceae (Gramineae). It is the most common and widely grown in the United States and has been introduced into cultivation around the world. It is densely foliated, growing up to 20 m (65 feet) tall in good conditions and can have a diameter of up to 10 cm (4 inches). Shoots grow rapidly in warmer months. The branches are short and leaves long.
258 Siraitia grosvenorii forbidden Luohanguo, Luo han kuo, Buddha´s fruit (EN), siraitia (PL), balzsamkörte fajta (HU), Momordika (LV)||This Chinese plant is a perennial vine which belongs to the Cucurbitaceae (cucumber or melon) Family.Lo Han fruits are used both inside and outside the People´s Republic of China, but not as food in the EU.
259 Smallanthus sonchifolius authorized Yacon (DE), polimnia jadalna (PL), jakon (CZ)||The request concerns tubers only. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius belonging to the Asteraceae Family) is a native Andean plant, cultivated for its tubers throughout South America, particularly in the warm and temperate Andean valleys from Colombia to north-western Argentina at altitudes between 1000 and 3500 m. The major proportion of these carbohydrates is sugar in the form of oligofructans or fructo-oligosaccharides, which are short polymers of fructose with a polymerisation degree of 3-10 fructans.
260 Smilax officinalis authorized zarzaparilla, khao yen, echte sarsaparilla (NL), salsepareille (Fr), kolcorośl lekarska (PL), Sarsaparilla (PT) (DE), smilax lékařský (CZ), Zarzaparrilla (ES), szárcsgyökér (HU), σαρσαπαρίλη (EL), sarsaparille (DK), Smilakse, Sariva, Indijas sasparilla (LV), navadni tetivik (SL), sarsaparill (SE)||Member of the Smilacaceae Family, sarsaparilla is a large woody vine growing up to 50 m in length and is native to South America, Jamaica, the Caribbean, Mexico, Honduras and the West Indies. There are many species of Smilax around the world that are very similar in appearance.
261 Solanum angulatum unknown see Solanum quitense
262 Solanum hirsutissimum unknown see Solanum quitense
263 Solanum muricatum authorized Pepino (DE) (ES) (PT), sweet cucumber, meloenpeer (NL), psianka nastroszona (PL), päärynämeloni (FI), Birnenmelone, Kachuma (DE), melon-maavitis (ET), pepino (FI) (SE) (CZ), ausztrál dinnyebokor (HU), melonpære (DK), Pepīno (LV), vrsta razhudnika (SL)||Belonging to the Solanaceae Family. Solanum muricatum
265 Solanum quitense authorized quito orange, morelle de quito (FR), lulo, psianka kątowata (PL), Quito-Nachtschatten, Lulo (DE), quito narancs (HU), naranjilla (DK), vrsta razhudnika (SL), naranjilla (SE), lulo-maavits (ET)||Belongs to the Solanaceae Family. Solanum quitense is also known as lulo, native from the highlands of Ecuador. It is propagated by seeds or cuttings. S. quitense is a shrubby perennial, nearly 2 m tall, with large purple veined leaves and white corollas. The rotund berries are covered with short, stiff hairs. At maturity the fruits, 4.5 to 5.5 cm in diameter, are orange the flesh or pulp of the fruit, however, is green.In Columbia and Ecuadors the fruit is used to produce processed foods, among them pasteurised juice, pulp, icecream and marmelade.Only the use of the fruits of Solanum quitense as food or food ingredient is established in the EU.
765 Sorbus aucuparia authorized Rönn (SE), Ebereschen, Vogelbeere, Eberesche (DE), Sorbier, Sorbier des oiseaux, Sorbier des oiseleurs (FR), Рябина (RU), Almindelig Røn (DK), Lijsterbes, Wilde lijsterbes (NL), Ilmreynir (IS), Rowan, Rowanberry, European Rowan, Mountain ash, European mountain ash (EN), Pihlaja, kotipihlaja (FI), Sorbo selvatico, sorbo degli uccellatori (IT), Rogn (NO), Tramazeira, cornogodinho, sorveira-dospassarinhos (PT), Jarzab pospolity (PL), Pajareros, serbal silvestre (ES)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the use of fruits (pome) of Sorbus aucuparia. In addition, the use of leaves and flowers of rowan or mountain ash is authorized in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Sorbus aucuparia (Rowan, European Rowan, Mountain ash, or European mountain ash), is a species of the genus Sorbus (plant family Rosaceae subfam. Maloideae (Malaceae)), native to most of Europe except for the far south, and northern Asia. In the south of its range in the Mediterranean region it is confined to high altitudes in mountains. It is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree typically growing to 8–10 m tall, more rarely 20 m, and exceptionally to 28 m. The bark is smooth, silvery grey of young trees, becoming scaly pale grey-brown and occasionally fissured on old trees. The shoots are green and variably hairy at first, becoming grey-brown and hairless; the buds are conspicuous, purple-brown, and often densely hairy. The leaves are pinnate, 10–22 cm long and 6-12 cm broad, with 9–19 (most often 13–15) leaflets; each leaflet is 3–7 cm long and 15–23 mm broad, with a coarsely serrated margin; they are variably hairy, particularly the petiole and leaf veins on the underside. The hermaphrodite flowers are produced in large terminal corymbs 8–15 cm diameter with up to 250 flowers, the individual flowers 1 cm diameter, with five creamy-white petals, and are insect pollinated. The fruit is a small pome 6–9 mm (rarely up to 14 mm) diameter, green at first, ripening bright red in late summer, and containing up to eight (most commonly two) small seeds. The fruit, called rowan berries in culinary usage, are usually quite bitter, but are used to make jam or jelly, with a distinctive bitter flavour. Due to wide range of European Rowan, fruits are used in many national kitchens to add their distinctive sour/bitter flavour to dishes or drinks. Rowan jelly is a traditional accompaniment to game and venison. The cultivar 'Edulis' has been selected for its less bitter fruit.
833 Sorghum bicolor authorized KP: 수수, PT: Erva-do-Sudão, sorgo, JP: モロコシ (morokoshi) , CN: 高粱, SI: Sirek, EN: Sorghum, great millet, durra, jowari, DK: Almindelig Durra, NL: Kafferkoren, FI, SE: Durra, FR: Sorgho, grand millet, gros mil, DE: Mohrenhirse, Sorghum, Kaffernkorn, Durrakorn, Besenkorn, BG, GR, IT: Sorgo, NO: Sorghum, PL: Proso cukrowe, ES: Sorgo, daza||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of fruit (achene) of Sorghum bicolor (sorghum, great millet). Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum and also known as durra or jowari, is a grass species cultivated for its edible grain. It belongs to the plant family Poaceae (Gramineae). Sorghum originated in northern Africa, and is now cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical regions. S. bicolor is typically an annual, but some cultivars are perennial. It grows in clumps that may reach over 4 metres high. The grain is small, ranging from 3 to 4 mm in diameter. Sweet sorghums are sorghum cultivars that are primarily grown for foliage; they are shorter than those grown for grain. Sorghum is one of a number of grains used as wheat substitutes in gluten-free recipes and products.
266 Sphaerotrichia divaricata forbidden sferotrichia (PL), vrsta alge (SL)||Brown algae belonging to the Chordariaceae Family and described from the Japanese coast. This species forms a community on flat rock beds. Some of these seaweeds have been studied and results have pointed-out some concerns for the presence of a toxic substance known as alpha,alpha´-dihydroxydiethyl peroxide.
355 Sphingo-lipids food_supplement sfingolipidy (PL), Esfingolípidos (PT) (ES), spingolipidi (FIN), Sphingolipide (DE), sfingolipiidid (ET), sfingolipidy (CZ), szfingolipidek (HU), σφιγγολιπίδια (EL), Sfingolipīdi (LV)||Sphingolipids are a class of lipids derived from the aliphatic amino alcohol sphingosine. The sphingosine backbone is O-linked to a charged head group such as ethanolamine, serine or choline. The backbone is also amide-linked to an acyl group, such as a fatty acid. Sphingolipids are often found in neural tissue and play an important role in both signal transmission and cell recognition.
565 Spirulina sp. authorized It is a blue-green microalga.
356 Splenopentin forbidden splenopentyna (PL), Splenopentin (DE), splenopentin (CZ), szplenopentin (HU), Splenopentīns (LV), sintetičen peprid iz hormona splenin (SL)||Splenopentin (SP-5, Arg-Lys-Glu-Val-Tyr) is a synthetic peptide corresponding to the region 32-34 of the splenic hormone called splenin.
835 Spondias lutea unknown see Spondias purpurea
834 Spondias mombin unknown see Spondias purpurea
836 Spondias purpurea authorized PL: Sliwiec, mombin, Ubos, ES: Ciruelo, ciruela española, ciruela roja, Mombín, ciruela, ciruela de la China, SE: Röd mombinspondias, EN: Red mombin, Spanish plum, Yellow mombin, DK: Rød Mombin, Gul Mombin, NL: Rode mombinpruim, Gele mombinpruim, FI: Amrapuu, FR: Prunier d´Espagne, mombin rouge, Grand mombin, prune mombin, myrobalane, DE: Rote Mombinpflaume, Mombinpflaume, Spanische Pflaume, IT: Susisna rossa, Susina gialla, Spondias mombin, Spondias lutea, PT: Mombim||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of fruits (botanically drupe) of Spondias purpurea (red mombin, Spanish plum) or Spondias mombin (yellow mombin, Spanish plum). Spondias is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family, Anacardiaceae. The genus consists of 17 described species, 7 of which are native to the Neotropics and about 10 are native to tropical Asia. They are commonly named hog plums, Spanish plums and in some cases golden apples for their brightly-colored fruit which resemble an apple or large plum at a casual glance. They are only distantly related to apple and plum trees, however. A more unequivocal common name is mombins. They are deciduous or semi-evergreen trees growing to 25 m tall. The leaves are spirally arranged, pinnate, rarely bipinnate or simple. The fruit is a drupe similar to a small mango (in the related genus Mangifera), 4-10 cm long, ripening yellow or orange. It has a single seed. About 10 species of Spondias bear edible fruits and have been domesticated for fruit production. Spondia purpurea (red mombin, Spanish plum, synon. Spondias mombin) and Spondias mombin (yellow mombin, synon. Spondias lutea) are used in the EU before 15 May 1997.
341 Stachyose forbidden stachioza (PL), Stachyose (DE), stahhüoos (ET), stachyóza (CZ), stachióz (HU), σταχυόζη (EL), Stahioze (LV), stahioza (SL)||Stachyose is a soluble alfa-galactoside.
838 Stachys affinis authorized Stachys sieboldii, EN: Chinese artichoke, Japonese artichoke, chorogi, knotroot, artichoke betony, crosne, BG: Ranilist, DK: Kinaskok, NL: Chinese artisjok, FI: Mukulapähkämö, FR: Crosne du Japon, DE: Knollenziest, Japanische Artischocke, Japanische Kartoffel, GR: Chorogi, IT: Betonica bianca, NO: Knollsvinerot, PT: Rabo-de-raposa, ES: Alcachofa china, alcachofa betónica, SE: Korogi, PL: Czysciec||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of roots (tuber) of Stachys affinis (Chinese artichoke, Japonese artichoke). Stachys affinis, the Chinese or Japonese artichoke, chorogi, knotroot, artichoke betony, or crosne, is an herbaceous perennial plant of the family Lamiaceae (Labiatae). Its tuber can be grown as a root vegetable. While the plant is easy to grow, the tubers are small, convoluted, and indented, so they are difficult to cook. The thin skin is of a whitish-brown or ivory-white colour. The flesh underneath, under proper cultivation, is white and tender. The flavor of the tubers is delicate, and they can be prepared similarly to Jerusalem artichokes in cooking. It is used as a vegetable, in salad compositions, but more so as a garnish. It has a nutty, artichoke-like flavor.
837 Stachys sieboldii unknown see Stachys affinis
267 Stemmacantha carthamoides authorized Maral root (EN), leuzea krokoszowata (PL), maralinjuuri, maraljuuri (FI), Maralwurzel (DE), harilik maralijuur (ET), parcha saflorovitá (CZ), szeklice imola (HU), Maralsakne (LV), vrsta rapontike (SL)||Stemmacantha carthamoides, commonly known as Maral root, is a herbaceous plant belonging to the Asteraceae Family. It can be found in bus-alpine and alpine zones in Southern Siberia, Kazakhstan and is also cultivated throughout Russia and Eastern Europe.
593 Stevia rebaudiana authorized candyleaf, sweetleaf, sugarleaf||The request only concerns tea, herbal and fruit infusions containing or prepared with leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and intended to be consumed as such. Such use(s) is considered as not novel. The use of extracts from leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a sweetener or as a flavouring fall in the context of Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 on food additives or Regulation (EC) No 1334/2008 on flavourings respectively
947 Streptococcus salivarius food_supplement The request concerns Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus
742 Suillus luteus authorized Slippery jack (EN), Voitatti (FI), Smörsopp (SE), Butterpilz (DE), Bolet jaune, cèpe jaune (FR), Маслёнок (RU), ヌメリイグチ (JP), Brungul Rørhat (DK), Bruine ringboleet (NL), Smjörsveppur, Furusveppur (IS), Smørsopp (NO), Cogumelo (PT), Maslak zwyczajny (PL), Boleto anillado, seta de pino (ES)||Suillus luteus or slippery jack belongs to the plant family Suillaceae. It has a dark brown cap, shiny in dry weather and slimy in wet weather. It has a large ring around the stem that initially covers the spore tubes and later, as it dries, adheres to the stem. The stem is yellowish above the ring and off-white below it. The pore surface is tightly packed and yellow in colour. The flesh is light yellow and soft, and does not change colour when cut. Slippery jacks are delicious mushrooms and can be prepared as they are in a frying pan. They can be frozen, dried, or marinated.
738 Suillus variegatus authorized Kangastatti (FI), Variegated bolete, velvet bolete (EN) , Sandröhrling (DE), Bolet tacheté (FR), Sandsopp (SE)||Suillus variegatus, commonly called the velvet bolete or variegated bolete, is a species of edible mushroom in the genus Suillus. Like all bolete-like species it has tubes, and pores, instead of gills under its cap. The mushroom forms a mycorrhizal relationship with pine and occurs in North America and Eurasia. The cap is 6 – 13 cm in diameter. It is rusty to tawny, or ochraceous, and has a velvety or downy feel when young. As it matures the surface becomes smoother, even greasy, and tacky in wet periods. The stem is ochre, more yellow towards the top, and may be flushed with rust at the base. It is sometimes slightly bulbous. The flesh is pale lemon, and may turn very slightly blue on cutting. The pores are ochre, becoming more cinnamon later, and the spore print is walnut brown.
464 Synsepalum dulcificum forbidden The miracle fruit, or miracle berry plant (Synsepalum dulcificum), produces berries that, when eaten, cause sour foods (such as lemons and limes) subsequently consumed to taste sweet. The plant grows in bushes up to 20 feet (6.1 m) high in its native habitat, but does not usually grow higher than ten feet in cultivation, and it produces two crops per year, after the end of the rainy season. It is an evergreen plant that produces small red berries, with flowers that are white and which are produced for many months of the year. The seeds are about the size of coffee beans. The berry contains an active glycoprotein molecule, with some trailing carbohydrate chains, called miraculin. When the fleshy part of the fruit is eaten, this molecule binds to the tongue's taste buds, causing sour foods to taste sweet. While the exact cause for this change is unknown, one hypothesis is that the effect may be caused if miraculin works by distorting the shape of sweetness receptors "so that they become responsive to acids, instead of sugar and other sweet things". This effect lasts 15-60 minutes.
839 Syzygium jambos authorized PL: Jablko rozane, SE: Rosenäpple, EN: Rose apple, jambos, Malabar Plum, champakka, chom pu, chom-phu, DK: Jambo, NL: Rozenappel, FI: Mausteneilikkapuu, FR: Jambosier, DE: Rosenapfel, IS: Rósaepli, IT: Melarosa, NO: Rosenjambos, PT: Jamboeiro, frutarosa, maçã-rosa, jambo, ES: Manzana rosa, pomarrosa, yambo||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of fruits (botanically berry) of Syzygium jambos. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. The fruit tree Syzygium jambos belongs to the plant family Myrtaceae and has several common names, including Rose apple, jambos, Malabar Plum, champakka, chom pu or chom-phu. The plant is native to Southeast Asia but is naturalized in India. The edible fruit is shaped like a small pear. There are several varieties, including the one most common in Thailand bearing a pale green fruit, and Malaysian varieties with red skin. It is often some shade of dull yellow. The skin is thin and waxy, and the hollow core contains a small amount of inedible fluff. The flesh is crisp and watery, and tastes like a cross between nashi and bell pepper, with a very mild rose scent and a slightly bitter aftertaste. The tree has long, glossy green leaves and white or greenish flowers.
470 Tamarindus indica authorized DE: Tamarinde, Sauerdattel, Indische Dattel, EN, BG, NO, SE: Tamarind, DK: Tamarinde, NL: Tamarindeboom, FI: Tamarindipuu, FR: Tamarinier, tamarin, IS: Tamarind, Indversk daðla, IT: Tamarindo, PT: Cedro-mimoso, tamarinheiro, tamarinhos, tamarindeiro, tamarindo, PL: Tamaryszek, ES: Tamarindo, magyi||The request concerns extracts from seed coat, food and food supplements. The Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) (from the Arabic: تمر هندي tamar hindi = Indian date) is a tree in the family Fabaceae (Leguminosae, subfam. Papilionoideae). The genus Tamarindus is monotypic (having only a single species). It is a tropical tree, native to tropical Africa, including Sudan and parts of the Madagascar dry deciduous forests. It was introduced into India so long ago that it has often been reported as indigenous there, and it was apparently from India that it reached the Persians and the Arabs who called it "tamar hindi" (Indian date, from the date-like appearance of the dried pulp), giving rise to both its common and generic names. However, the specific name, "indica", also perpetuates the illusion of Indian origin. The fruit was well known to the ancient Egyptians and to the Greeks in the 4th Century B.C.E. The tree can grow up to 20 m in height, and stays evergreen in regions without a dry season, it is frost sensitive. Tamarind timber consists of hard, dark red heartwood and softer, yellowish sapwood. The leaves consist of 10–40 leaflets. The flowers are produced in racemes. The fruit is a brown pod-like legume, which contains a soft acidic pulp and many hard-coated seeds. The seeds can be scarified to enhance germination.
270 Tanacetum parthenium unknown see Chrysanthemum parthenium
841 Taraxacum officinale authorized IS: Túnfífill, IT: Dente di leone, piscialletto, soffione, radicchiella, tarassaco, pisciacane, NO: Løvetann, PT: Dente-de-leão, taraxaco, coroa-demonge, amor-doshomens, leitugados-prados, PL: Mniszek lekarski, ES: Radicheta, SE: Maskros, BG: Gluharche, DK: Almindelig Mælkebøtte, NL: Paardenbloem, molsla, EN: Dandelion, Common dandelion, FI: Voikukka, FR: Pissenlit, Dent de lion, DE: Löwenzahn, Butterblume, Pusteblume, Kuhblume, GR: Picralida, agriomarulo||Taraxacum officinale Webb is a herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae. The request concerns the use of Taraxacum officinale leaves, flowers and roots. These parts of the plant are not novel in foods.
840 Taraxacum vulgare unknown see Taraxacum officinale
271 Terminalia arjuna food_supplement arjuna (FI) (SL), migdałecznik arjuna (PL), Arjunbaum (DE), arjuunaterminaalia (ET), vrcholák pravý (CZ), andzsuna (HU), Terminālija, ardžuna (LV), klinastolistni mirobalanovec (SL), Arjuna (PT)||Tree found throughout India.
467 Terminalia chebula food_supplement Chebulische Myrobalane (DE), Zwarte myrobalaan (NL), Badamier chebule, Myrobalan chebule (FR), Black Myrobalan, Chebulic Myrobalan (EN)||According to information available the use of fruit and bark of Terminalia chebula is known in food supplements in the EU before 15 May 1997. Terminalia chebula (Black Myrobalan or Chebulic Myrobalan; Chinese: 诃子 he zi) is a species of Terminalia, native to southern Asia from India and Nepal east to southwestern China (Yunnan), and south to Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Vietnam. It is an deciduous tree growing to 30 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter. The leaves are alternate to subopposite in arrangement, oval, 7-18 cm long and 4.5-10 cm broad with a 1-3 cm petiole. The fruit is drupe-like, 2-4.5 cm long and 1.2-2.5 cm broad, blackish, with five longitudinal ridges.
842 Tetragonia tetragonoides authorized BG: Novozelandski spanak, DK: Newzealandsk Spinat, NL: Nieuwzeelandse spinazie, FI: Lamopinaatti, uudenseelanninpinaatti, FR: Tétragone, épinard de la Nouvelle Zélande, tétragone cornue, NO: Ny Zealandspinat, Bladtetragonia, PT: Espinafre-da-Nova Zelândia, espinafreda-Madeira, PL: Czterorozna, IT: Spinacio della Nuova Zelanda, ES: Espinaca de Nueva Zelanda, SE: Nyzeeländsk spenat, EN: New Zealand Spinach, Warrigal Greens, Sea Spinach, Botany Bay Spinach, Tetragon, Cook's Cabbage, DE: Neuseeländischer Spinat||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of leaves and stem of Tetragonia tetragonoides. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Tetragonia tetragonioides (or previously T. expansa) is a leafy groundcover also known as New Zealand Spinach, Warrigal Greens, Kokihi (Māori language), Sea Spinach, Botany Bay Spinach, Tetragon and Cook's Cabbage. It is native to New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Chile and Argentina. It belongs to the plant family Aizoaceae (Tetragoniaceae). The species prefers a moist environment for growth. The plant grows flat on the ground. The leaves of the plant are 3–15 cm long, triangular in shape and bright green. The leaves are thick, and covered with tiny papillae that look like waterdrops on the top and bottom of the leaves. The flowers of the plant are yellow, and the fruit is a small, hard pod covered with small horns. The plant is a halophyte and grows well in saline ground. It is grown for the edible leaves, and can be used as food or an ornamental plant for ground cover. As some of its names signify, it has similar flavour and texture properties to spinach, and is cooked like spinach. Like spinach it contains oxalates: T.tetragonioides' medium to low levels of oxalates need to be removed by blanching the leaves in hot water for one minute, then rinsing in cold water before cooking.
696 Theobroma cacao pending IT: Albero del cacao, PT: Cacaueiro, ES: Cacaotero, árbol del cacao, cacao, GR: Cacao, BG: Kakaovo durvo, DK, NO, PL, SE: Kakao, FI: Kaakaopuu, FR: Cacao, Cacaoyer, Cacaotier, DE: Kakaobohne, Kakao, IS: Kakótré, EN: Cacao, cacao tree, NL: Cacao, cacaoboom||The request concerns the status of cocoa fibres from the "shell" of the cocoa beans (the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of Theobroma cacao). Theobroma cacao also cacao tree and cocoa tree, is a small (4–8 m or 15–26 ft tall) evergreen tree in the family Sterculiaceae (Byttneriaceae, alternatively Malvaceae), native to the deep tropical region of the Americas. Its seeds are used to make cocoa powder and chocolate. There are two prominent competing hypotheses about the origins of the domestication of the originally wild Theobroma cacao tree. One is that wild examples were originally distributed from southeastern Mexico to the Amazon basin, with domestication taking place both in the Lacandon area of Mexico and in lowland South America. But recent studies of Theobroma cacao genetics seem to show that the plant originated in the Amazon and was distributed by humans throughout Central America and Mesoamerica. Cocoa bean (also cacao bean, often simply cocoa and cacao) is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and cocoa butter are extracted. They are the basis of chocolate, as well as many Mesoamerican foods such as mole sauce and tejate. A cocoa pod (fruit) has a rough leathery rind about 3 cm thick (this varies with the origin and variety of pod). It is filled with sweet, mucilaginous pulp (called 'baba de cacao' in South America) enclosing 30 to 50 large seeds that are fairly soft and white to pale lavender in color. While seeds are usually white, they become violet or reddish brown during the drying process. The exception is rare varieties of white cacao, in which the seeds remain white. Historically, white cacao was cultivated by the Rama people of Nicaragua. For clarification: Cocoa exists of the POD, which holds different beans, which are each surrounded by a "film", the SHELL.
306 Theobroma grandiflorum authorized Cupuacu (DE), cupuasu, copoasu cocoa -like, kakaowiec wielkokwiatowy (PL), kakaovník velkokvětý (CZ), Kupuasu (LV), vrsta kakavovca (SL), kakao-släkting (SE), Cupuaçu (PT)||Belongs to the Sterculiaceae Family. Cupuacu fruit (found throughout the Rainforest regions) has been a primary food source for both indigenous tribes and animals alike. Only the use of the fruits of Theobrama grandiflorum as food or food ingredient is established in the EU.
342 Thymopentin forbidden TP-5, tymopentyna (PL), tymopentiini (FI), Thymopentin (DE), tymopentin (CZ), timopentin (HU), sintetičen peptid iz hormona timopoietin (SL), tümopentiin (ET)||Thymopentin, also known as TP-5, is a peptide of five amino acids (Arg-Lys-Asp-Val-Tyr). It is a synthesized derivative of thymopoietin, a naturally occurring hormone produced by the thymus gland. Thymopentin has the CAS No 69558-55-0 and has the molecular formula: C30H49N9O9 H-Arg-Lys-Asp-Val-Tyr-OH.
732 Thyrsostachys siamensis authorized Thysostachys regia, Grönsaksbambu (SE), Bambú (PT, ES), Bambus (DK, DE, NO), Bambù (IT), Bambusreyr (IS), Calami babu (GR), Bambou (FR), Bambu (FI), Bamboo, bamboo cane (EN), Drebnolistna lipa (BG), Bamboe (NL), Bambus rozlogowy (PL)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the stem (botanically immature shoot) of Thyrsostachys siamensis. Thyrsostachys siamensis or Thysostachys regia is one of the edible bamboo species and belongs to the plant family Poaceae (Gramineae). Thyrsostachys is a genus of moderate size bamboo found in the dry lowlands from Thailand to Vietnam.
725 Thysostachys regia unknown see Thyrsostachys siamensis
307 Tinospora cordifolia authorized Tinospora cordifolia is a large, climbing shrub. A deciduous unknown that grows to 1.0 meters (3.3 feet) high by 0.5 meters (1.65 feet) wide and prefers many types of soil ranging from acid to alkaline and partial to full sun with moderate moisture. This plant has hermaphrodite flowers. "Guduchi" tea from Tinospora cordifolia was on the market in the EU to a significant degree.
847 Tragopogon porrifolius authorized EN: Salsify, oyster plant, vegetable oyster, DK: Havrerod, NL: Preibladige boksbaard, FI: Kaurajuuri, FR: Salsifi, DE: Haferwurzel, Weisswurzel, GR: Lagochorto, tragaci, IS: Hafursrót, IT: Violetta, BG: Kozia brada, NO: Havrerot, Rotgeitskjegg, PT: Salsifi, Barba-debode, PL: Kozibrob porolistny, salseferia, ES: Barba de cabra, barbón, SE: Haverrot||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of roots of Tragopogon porrifolius. Tragopogon porrifolius is a plant cultivated for its ornamental flower, edible root, and herbal properties. It also grows wild in many places and is one of the most widely known species of the salsify genus, Tragopogon (belongs to the plant family Asteraceae (Compositae)). It is commonly known as purple or common salsify, oyster plant, vegetable oyster, Jerusalem star, goatsbeard or simply salsify (although these last two names are also applied to other species, as well). T. porrifolius is a common biennial wildflower, native to Mediterranean regions of Europe but introduced elsewhere, for example, into Great Britain, (mainly in the south) and northern Europe, North America, and southern Africa and in Australia; in the United States it is now found growing wild in almost every state, including Hawaii, except in the extreme south-east. The plant grows to around 120 cm in height. As with other Tragopogons, its stem is largely unbranched, and the leaves are somewhat grasslike. It exudes a milky juice from the stems. The flower head is about 5 cm across, and each is surrounded by green bracts which are longer than the petals (technically, the ligules of the ray flowers). The flowers are like that of Goatsbeard Tragopogon pratensis, but are larger and dull purple, 30-50mm across. The flowers are hermaphroditic, and pollination is by insects. The fruits are of the clock variety.
461 Trametes versicolor forbidden Outkovka pestrá (CZ), Kirju tagel (ET), Broget lædersporesvamp (DK), Pisana ploskocevka (SL), Schmetterlingstramete (DE) , Silkkivyökääpä (FI), Turkey Tail (EN), Wrośniak różnobarwny (PL), Lepketapló (HU)||Trametes versicolor is a mushroom belonging to the Polyporaceae Family
848 Trapa natans authorized EN: Water chestnut, caltrops, BG: Diavolski oreh, DK: Flydende Hornnød, NL: Waterkastanje, FI: Vesipähkinä, FR: Cornue, mâcre commune, châtaigne d’eau, DE: Wassernuss, GR: Trivolocratela, IS: Vatnshneta, Hornhneta, IT: Tribolo acquatico, noce d’acqua, tartufo d’acqua, castagna d’acqua, NO: Vannnøtt, vassnøtt, PT: Castanha-d’água, PL: Kotewka, orzech wodny, ES: Castaña de agua, abrojo de agua, SE: Sjönöt||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of seeds (originated from a nut) of Trapa natans. The water caltrop or water chestnut (Trapa natans) is a species of the genus Trapa and plant family Trapaceae. It is floating annual aquatic plants, growing in slow-moving water up to 5 meters deep, native to warm temperate parts of Eurasia and Africa. It bears ornately shaped fruits and each fruit contains a single very large starchy seed. It has been cultivated in China and India for at least 3,000 years for the seeds. The water caltrop's submerged stem reaches 12 to 15 ft (3.6 to 4.5 m) in length, anchored into the mud by very fine roots. It has two types of leaves, finely divided feather-like submerged leaves borne along the length of the stem, and undivided floating leaves borne in a rosette at the water's surface. The floating leaves have saw-tooth edges and are ovoid or triangular in shape, 2–3 cm long, on inflated petioles 5–9 cm long, which provide added buoyancy for the leafy portion. Four-petalled white flowers form in early summer and are insect-pollinated. The fruit is a nut with four 0.5 in (1 cm), barbed spines. Seeds can remain viable for up to 12 years, although most will germinate within the first two years.
308 Tribulus terrestris food_supplement Devil´s thorn (EN), caltrop, buzdyganek ziemny (PL), Abrolho (PT), Bettlernuss, Dreispitz, Erdsternchen, Erdwurzeldorn (DE), kotvičník zemní (CZ), királydinnye (HU), malteserkors (DK), navadna zobačica (SL)||Plants belonging to the Zygphyllaceae Family which are most visible towards the end of summer as they reach maximum size after germinating shortly after summer rains.
309 Tricholoma matsutake authorized 松茸, マツタケ (JP), Matsutake, Pine mushroom (EN), Tricholoma nauseosum, Tuoksuvalmuska (FI), Goliatmusseron (SE), Krokodildritterling (DE), Matsutake (FR), Мацутаке (RU)||Matsutake (Japanese: 松茸, pine mushroom, Tricholoma matsutake = syn. T. nauseosum) is the common name for a highly sought after mycorrhizal mushroom that grows in Asia, Europe, and North America. It belongs to the plant family Tricholomataceae. It is prized by the Japanese for its distinct spicy-aromatic odor. The matsutake is a large mushroom with a strong aroma. The matsutake is found normally in association with pine trees. It is also called “pine mushroom”. The cap varies from light to dark brown or the colour of tar, without reddish hues. It measures 6–20 centimetres across. Large, dark brown, silky scales adhere to the surface of the cap. The stem is 5–20 centimetres long and 1.5–2.5 centimetres thick. It is of uniform thickness, or slightly wider towards the bottom. The stem is often bent, extends deep into the ground, and is firmly attached at the base. The gills are white and notched. In young specimens, the gills are covered by a protective veil that later leaves a fuzzy ring around the upper part of the stem. The stem is white above the ring and has a brown pattern below it. The flesh is firm and white, and keeps well.
311 Trifolium pratense food_supplement Red clover (EN), Rode klaver (NL), Koniczyna czerwona, koniczyna łąkowa (PL), Trevo violeta (PT), Puna-apila (FI), Wiesenklee, Rotklee (DE), Aasristik (ET), Jetel luční (CZ), Trébol (ES), Vörös lóhere (HU), Rødkløver (DK), črna detelja (SL), Rödklöver (SE), Trèfle des prés, Trèfle rouge, Triolet (FR)||According to information available the use of aerial parts of Trifolium pratense is in food supplements in the EU before 15 May 1997. Trifolium pratense belongs to the Fabaceae family. It is a common perennial plant, growing to a height of 15 - 90 cm. Native to Europe and Russia, from Arctic south to east Siberia. Red clover is used by farmers in crop rotation to improve soil fertility, as it stores nitrogen in its root nodules.
466 Trigonella foenum-graecum authorized EN: Fenugreek, sicklefruit, CZ: Pískavice, BG: Grucki sminduh, DK: Almindelig Bukkehorn, NL: Hoornklaver, fenugriek, fenegriek, FI: Sarviapila, FR: Trigonelle, fenugrec, DE: Bockshornklee, Griechisch-Heu, GR: Tili, tintilida, dodilino, moschositaro, IS: Grikkjasmári, IT: Fieno greco, NO: Bukkehornskløver, PT: Alfarva, alforvas, caroba, ervinha, penacho, PL: Kozieratka pospolita, ES: Fenogreco, alholva, heno griego, SE: Bockhornsklöver||Only the seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) have been used as food within the EU before 15 May 1997. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a plant in the family Fabaceae (Leguminosae, subfam. Papilionoideae). It is indigenous to countries on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean and cultivated in India, Egypt and Africa. Fenugreek is used both as a herb (the leaves) and as a spice (the seed). The cuboid yellow to amber coloured fenugreek seeds are frequently used in the preparation of pickles, curry powders, and pastes, and the spice is often encountered in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
971 Triticum authorized Búza (HU), wheat (EN)||Besides the seed of Triticum genus, also fiber produced from stem as food ingredient has been used and consumed to a significant degree throughout the Union before 15 May 1997. Thus, it does not fall under the Novel Food regulation
956 Triticum aestivum authorized Wheat (EN), Weizen (DE), Pšenice (CZ)||Wheat has been used as food within the EU before 15 May 1997. The request concerns wheat grass juice and powders thereof. Wheatgrass is derived from common wheat (Triticum aestivum ) and is produced by juicing the young shoots just before the jointing stage
312 Turnera diffusa authorized Damiana (PT) (DE) (ES), damiaanblad (NL), feuilles de damiana (FR), turnera rozpierzchła/ damiana (PL), damiana (FI) (CZ) (HU) (DK) (SL), seksturnera (ET), νταμιάνα (EL)||Damiana belongs to the Turneraceae Family and it is a small shrub that grows 1-2 m high, found throughout Mexico, Central America, as well as in parts of South America. Together with Turnera diffusa, the common name Damiana includes also the species Turnera aphrodisiaca. Both are referred to as Damiana and used in different preparations. The leaves and stems of Turnera diffusa are used in Central and South America for flavouring and infusion purposes.
469 Ulva lactuca authorized Sea lettuce, Lettuce laver, Green Laver, Sea Grass (EN), Laitue de mer (FR), Meersalat (DE), Alface-do-mar (PT), Luche, Luchi (ES), Havssallat (SE)||Ulva lactuca is a thin flat green algae that is widely distributed along the coasts of the world's oceans.
313 Uncaria surinamensi unknown see Uncaria tomentosa
314 Uncaria tomentosa food_supplement Cat´s claw (EN), uña de gato, hawk´s claw (EN), katsklaux (NL), czepota puszysta (PL), koci pazur (PL), kissankynsi (FI), Katzenkralle, Katzendorn (DE), vilcacora (CZ), Uña de gato (ES), macskakarom (HU), vrsta unkarije (SL), Unha de Gato (PT), surinami küünisväät (ET)||Belonging to the Rubiaceae Family, it´s a slow-growing, high climbing woody vine that can take up to 20 years to reach maturity. There are 34 species of Uncaria throuhhout the world with various properties.
315 Undaria pinnatifida authorized Wakame (DE), Japanese kelp (EN), undaria pierzastodzielna (PL), wakame (FI) (DK), hnědá řasa wakame (CZ), tengeri mustár, makróalga (HU), vrsta alge (SL), Alga Wakame (PT), lehtadru (liigid perekonnast Undaria) (ET)||Brown Algae native to Japan, Korea and parts of China.
581 Urtica dioica authorized NL: Grote brandnetel, FI: Isonokkonen, FR: Grande ortie, Ortie dioïque, EN: Nettle, stinging nettle, greater nettle, BG: Kopriva, DK: Stor Nælde, DE: Große Brennessel, GR: Tsucnida, tsucna, scites, IS: Brenninetla, IT: Ortica comune, orticone, ortica maschia, NO: Stornesle, PT: Urtiga, PL: Pokrzywa zwyczajna, ES: Ortiga, chichicaste, SE: Brännässla||The leaves of Urtica dioica have been used as food in the EU before 15 May 1997. In addition, according to the "Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements" the use of all plant parts of stinging nettle or greater nettle is authorized in food supplements. Nettle is the common name for between 30-45 species of flowering plants of the genus Urtica in the family Urticaceae, with a cosmopolitan though mainly temperate distribution. They are mostly herbaceous perennial plants, but some are annual and a few are shrubby. The most prominent member of the genus is the stinging nettle Urtica dioica, native to Europe, north Africa, Asia, and North America. The genus also contains a number of other species with similar properties. However, a large number of species names that will be encountered in this genus in the older literature (about 100 species have been described) are now recognized as synonyms of Urtica dioica. Some of these taxa are still recognized as subspecies. Most of the species share the property of having stinging hairs, and might be expected to have similar medicinal uses to the stinging nettle. The stings of Urtica ferox, the ongaonga or tree nettle of New Zealand, have been known to kill horses, dogs and at least one human.
850 Vaccinium macrocarpon authorized BG: Oksikokus, DK: Storfrugtet Tranebær, PL: Zurawina wieloowocowa, ES: Arándano trepador, arándano americano, SE: Amerikanskt tranbär, Oxycoccus macrocarpus, EN: American Cranberry, Large cranberry, Bearberry, Cranberry, NL: Grote veenbes, cranberry, FI: Amerikankarpalo, FR: Canneberge à gros fruit, ronce d’Amérique, Airelle à gros fruits, DE: Amerikanische Cranberry, Großfrüchtige Moosbeere, IS: Kalkúnaber, Amerísk trönuber, IT: Mirtillo varieta, NO: Stortranebær, PT: Arando americano, mirtilo americano||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of fruits (berries) of Vaccinium macrocarpon. In addition, the use of buds and leaves of cranberry is authorized in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). Vaccinium macrocarpon (also called Large cranberry, American Cranberry and Bearberry) is a cranberry of the subgenus Oxycoccus and genus Vaccinium (plant family Ericaceae). It is native to North America (eastern Canada, and eastern United States, south to North Carolina at high altitudes).
316 Vaccinium myrtillus pending Blueberry, Bilberry, Wild blueberry, Whortleberry, Common bilberry (EN), Blauwe bosbes, Bosbes (NL), Myrtille commune, Myrtille, Myrtillier, Baies de myrtille (FR), Borówka czernica, Borowka czarna, jagoda (PL), Mirtilo, Arando, Erva escovinha, Uva do monte, Ráspano (PT), Arándano, Ráspano, Mirtillo (ES), Mustikka (FI), Blaubeere, Heidelbeere, Schwarzbeere (DE), Harilik mustikas (ET), Brusnice borůvka (CZ), Feketeáfonya (HU), Μύρτιλλο (EL), Almindelig blåbær (DK), Borovnica (SL), Blåbär (SE), Черника (RU), ブルーベリー (JP), Cherni borovinki (BG), Aðalbláberjalyng (IS), Mirtillo nero, piuri, baccole, bagole, baggiole (IT), Blåbær (NO)||The request concerns ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the fruit of Vaccinium myrtillus. Fruits (berries) of bilberry, whortleberry or wild blueberry has been used as food within the EU before 15 May 1997. In addition, according to the "Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements" the use of the leaves is authorized in food supplements. Vaccinium myrtillus is a plant belonging to the Ericaceae Family which can be found in the mountains and forests of Europe and the Northen United States. The bilberry is a perennial, erect, 10–30 cm tall shrub with angular, green branches. Its leaves are elliptic, tapering, have toothed margins, and drop for the winter. The bilberry flowers in May–July. Single, pink, bell-shaped flowers grow in the axils of the leaves. The bilberry is dark blue both outside and inside, globose, and has a waxy surface. The berries can also be black and shiny in cases where the protective waxy layer is missing.
763 Vaccinium oxycoccus authorized European cranberry, Cranberry, small cranberry, common cranberry (EN), Isokarpalo, Karpalo (FI), Tranbär (SE), Moosbeere, Preiselbeere, Kronsbeere (DE), Canneberge, airelle des marais, Canneberge des marais, Airelle canneberge, Canneberge ou atocas (FR), Клюква (RU), クランベリー (ツルコケモモ)(JP), Sunica (BG), Almindelig Tranebær (DK), Kleine veenbes (NL), Trönuberjalyng (IS), Mirtillo di palude (IT), Tranebær (NO), Arando europeu (PT), Zurawina blotna (PL), Arándano europeo (ES)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant list) concerns only the use of fruits (berries) of Vaccinium oxycoccus. In addition, the use of leaves of small or common cranberry is authorized in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). According to the NETTOX list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. The common cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) belongs to the plant family Ericaceae. It is a prostrate, low-growing shrub reaching 10–80 cm in length. Its overwintering leaves are 6–15 mm long, elliptic or tapering, glossy and green above and whitish underneath. The pink flowers of the shrub grow in pairs or groups at the ends of its branches. The cranberry flowers in June–July. The berry is globose, 10–15 mm in diameter or teardrop-shaped and widening either at the tip or base. The berry is red or a deep bluish red and acidic to the taste.
768 Vaccinium uliginosum authorized Bog bilberry, Northern bilberry, Bog whortleberry, Bilberry, Tundra Bilberry (EN), Juolukka (FI), Odon (SE), Rauschbeere, Trunkelbeere (DE), Myrtille des marais, Myrtille de loup (FR), Голубика (RU), クロマメノキ (アサマブドウ) (JP), Bláberjalyng (IS), Miritllo falso (IT), Blokkebær (NO), Arando dos pântanos, arando negro (PT), Borowka bagienna (PL), Sinia borovinka (BG), Mosebølle (DK), Rijsbes (NL)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the fruits (berries) of Vaccinium uliginosum. The bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) is an erect perennial dwarf shrub reaching 15–50 cm in height belonging to the plant family Ericaceae. Its stem is branched at the base, brownish and woody. The leaves of the bog bilberry are obovate, entire at the margins, blunt and tapering, and drop in winter. The leaves are a greyish-bluish green above and light green underneath. The inflorescence is a 1–3-flowered terminal raceme. White to reddish flowers bloom on the shrub from May to June. The berry has a waxy surface and is 8–12 mm in diameter, globose or ovoid, and often somewhat angular. It has a greyish-blue colour on the outside and is light-coloured on the inside. It is juicy with a mild taste. Bog bilberries can be eaten on their own. They can also be used in porridge, soups or juice. Bog bilberries can be preserved frozen, dried or juiced, or cooked to make jam. As the berry has a fairly mild flavour, it can be used in conjunction with more aromatic berries.
766 Vaccinium vitis-idaea authorized Брусника (RU), Rauðberjalyng (IS), Mirtillo rosso, vite orsina, vite di monte, vigna d’orso (IT), Tyttebær (NO), Arando encarnado (PT), Borowka brusznica (PL), Arándano rojo (ES), Chervena borovinka (BG), Tyttebær (DK), Lingonberry, Cowberry (EN), Puolukka (FI), Lingon (SE), Preiselbeere (DE), Airelle, Airelle rouge, Myrtille rouge, Airelle vigne d'Ida (FR), リンゴンベリー (コケモモ) (JP), Rode bosbes (NL)||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns only the fruits (berries) of Vaccinium vitis-idaea. In addition, the use of leaves of cowberry or lingonberry is authorized in food supplements (Belgian list of plants that are considered to be not novel for the use in food supplements). The lingonberry is an erect or ascending shrub growing to a height of 5–30 cm. It belongs to the plant family Ericaceae. The stems of the plant are woody and hairy. Its leaves are overwintering, tapering, have a waxy surface and are green on top and light green underneath. The lingonberry flowers in June–July. Its urceolate or pitcher-shaped corolla is 5–8 mm in length and either white or reddish. The inflorescence is a dense terminal raceme. The bitter-tasting lingonberry is globose, red and juicy. Lingonberries have traditionally been used as a garnish for meat dishes. They can be used as an ingredient in berry soups, porridge, casseroles, baked goods and juice. The berry is preserved by freezing, crushing, or boiling to make jelly or jam. Lingonberries contain the natural preservative benzoic acid, which allows the berries to keep well either crushed and kept in cold storage or submerged in water. Berries picked after a frost can be used to make juice.
852 Valerianella locusta authorized BG: Motovilka, DK: Tandfri Vårsalat, Feldsalat, FI: Vuonankaali, FR: Mâche doucette, valerianelle, salade de blé, raiponce, DE: Feldsalat, Rapunzel, IS: Lambasalat, Vorsalat, IT: Gallinella, NO: Vårsalat, PT: Alface-de-cordeiro, PL: Roszponka, ES: Canónigo, SE: Vintersallat, EN: Cornsalad, lamb's lettuce, Lewiston cornsalad, fetticus, field salad, mâche, feldsalat, NL: Gewone veldsla, veldsla||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of leaves of Valerianella locusta. Corn salad or lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta (Linnaeus)) is a small dicot annual plant of the family Valerianaceae. It is also called Lewiston cornsalad, fetticus, field salad, mâche, feldsalat, nut lettuce and rapunzel. Corn salad grows in a low rosette with spatulate leaves up to 15.2 cm long. It is a hardy plant that grows to zone 5, and in mild climates it is grown as a winter green. In warm conditions it tends to bolt to seed. Corn salad grows wild in parts of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia. In Europe and Asia it is a common weed in cultivated land and waste spaces. In North America it has escaped cultivation and become naturalized on both the eastern and western seaboards.
856 Vigna catjang unknown see Vigna unguiculata
854 Vigna sinensis unknown see Vigna unguiculata
317 Vigna subterranea pending Bambara groundnut (EN), Erderbse, Angolaerbse, Bambarra-Erdnuss (DE), garbipłat podziemny (PL), Bambarra (PT) (ES), maa-lehmahernes (ET), vigna (CZ), bambarajordnød (DK), bambara-jordnöt (SE)||Bambara groundnut is indigenous African legume, belonging to the Leguminosae Family. Particularly, the plant is found in Nigeria, Camerun as well as in Burkina Fazo, Niger, Mozambique, Togo and Ivory Coast.
853 Vigna unguiculata authorized Phaseolus cylindricus, Vigna sinensis, Vigna catjang, EN: Cowpea, blackeye bean, black-eyed pea, Catjang, Yard-long bean, asparagus bean, BG: Loza, Polski grah, DK: Vignabønne, Catajang, Meterbønne, NL: Vignaboon, Katjang, Kouseband, FR: Haricot indogène, pois à vache, dolique de Chine, haricot à oeil noir, gesse à vache, DE: Augenbohne, Kuhbohne, Kuherbse, Catjangbohne, Spargelbohne, GR: Abelofasula, gyftofasula, arapofasula, velonacia, mavromatica, Sparagi, IS: Augnbaun, Kúabaun, IT: Fagiolo dall’occhio della California, Fagiolo dall’occhio, Fagiolo asparagio, NO: Øyebønne, Vignabønne, PT: Feijão-frade, feijãochícharo, PL: Fasola vigna, Fasola brazowa, Fasolnik, SE: Ögonböna, Långböna, ES: Costeño, fríjol de costa, rabiza, caupí, frijol chino, Judía (dolico) espárrago, FI: Pitkäpapu, lehmänpapu||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of seeds or immature fruits (originated from a pod) of Vigna unguiculata. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. The Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is one of several species of the widely cultivated genus Vigna. It belongs to the plant family Fabaceae (Leguminosae, subfam. Papilionoideae). Four cultivated subspecies are recognised: Vigna unguiculata subsp. cylindrica (Catjang) Vigna unguiculata subsp. dekindtiana Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (Yardlong bean) Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata (Black-eyed pea) Cowpeas are one of the most important food legume crops in the semi-arid tropics covering Asia, Africa, southern Europe and Central and South America. A drought-tolerant and warm-weather crop, cowpeas are well-adapted to the drier regions of the tropics, where other food legumes do not perform well. Cowpeas are a common food item in the southern United States, where they are often called Black-eyed pea or field peas. Two subcategories of field peas are crowder peas, so called because they are crowded together in their pods, causing them to have squarish ends, and cream peas.
318 Viscum album food_supplement FR: Gui, EN: Mistletoe, European Mistletoe, Common Mistletoe , NL: Maretak, DE: Weißbeerige Mistel, Weiße Mistel, FI: Misteli||The request concerns the use of leaves and stem of Viscum album.The use of these parts of the plant is known in food supplements in the EU before 15 May 1997.
1037 Vitellaria paradoxa authorized Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn., commonly known as shea tree, is a tree of the family Sapotaceae. The request concerns the use of shea butter which is a fat that is extracted from the nuts of the shea tree. This product is not novel.
319 Vitis vinifera authorized Grape seed meal (EN), druif (NL), winorośl właściwa (PL), videira (PT), viiniköynnös (FI), Weinrebe (DE), harilik viinapuu (ET), réva vinná (CZ), Vid roja (ES), szőlő (HU), almindelig vin (DK), vinska trta (SL), vin (SE)||Fruits (botanically berries) of Vitis vinifera (grapevine, wine grape) have been used as food in the EU before 15 May 1997. The request concerned whether Grape seed meal and requires authorisation under Regulation (EC) No 258/97. A request from GR concers the use of grape seed powdered extract (extraction with water) as an ingredient of a non-alcoholic beverage. A request from PL concerns free fatty acid from grape seeds oil obtained by enzymatic process. Vitis vinifera (Common Grape Vine) is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Spain north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran. It is a liana growing to 35 m tall, with flaky bark. The leaves are alternate, palmately lobed, 5–20 cm long and broad. The fruit is a berry, known as a grape; in the wild species it is 6 mm diameter and ripens dark purple to blackish with a pale wax bloom; in cultivated plants it is usually much larger, up to 3 cm long, and can be green, red, or purple. The species typically occurs in humid forests and streamsides. The wild grape is often classified as V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris (in some classifications considered Vitis sylvestris), with V. vinifera subsp. vinifera restricted to cultivated forms. Domesticated vines have hermaphrodite flowers, but subsp. sylvestris is dioecious (male and female flowers on separate plants) and pollination is required for fruit to develop. It is cultivated on every continent on Earth except for Antarctica. In Europe, in the central and southern regions; in Asia, in the western regions (Anatolia, Caucasus, Middle east) and in China; In Africa, along the northern Mediterranean coast and in South Africa; in North America, in California, Mexico and also other areas like (New Mexico, New York (state), British Columbia, Canada); in South America in Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and Brasil; in Oceania in Australia and New Zealand.
857 Volvariella volvacea authorized EN: Paddy straw mushroom, straw mushroom, DK: Risstråsvamp, FI: Tarhatuppisieni, FR: Champignon de paille, volvaire comestible, DE: Reisstrohpilz, IT: Volvariella, NO: Grå sliresopp, PT: Cogumelo, PL: Pochwiak wielkopochwowy, ES: Seta, hongo||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of the fruiting body of Volvariella volvacea. According to the list it is also used as natural source for flavourings. Volvariella volvacea (also known as straw mushroom or paddy straw mushroom) is a species of edible mushroom cultivated throughout East and Southeast Asia and used extensively in Asian cuisines. It belongs to the plant family Pluteaceae. They are often available fresh in Asia, but are more frequently found in canned or dried form outside their nations of cultivation. Straw mushrooms are grown on rice straw beds and picked immature, during the button or egg phase and before the veil ruptures. They are adaptable and take 4-5 days to mature, and are most successfully grown in subtropical climates with high annual rainfall. There is no record of their cultivation before the 19th century.
320 Withania somnifera authorized Ashwagan-dha, Indian ginseng (EN), śpioszyn lekarski (PL), ashwagandha (FI), Schlafbeere (DE), uimastav juustumari (ET), witánie snodárná, a vagandha (CZ), uspavalna vitanija (SL), Ashwagandha, cereja do inverno (PT)||Native of India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The plant is an erect branched shrub. It is also known as Aswagandha.
321 Xanthoparmelia scabrosa forbidden Sigra, żełuczka chropawa (PL), lišejník (CZ), zúzmóféle (HU)||A lichen that belongs to the Parmeliaceae Family. It is a yellow-green plant which is common on asphalt, also on rock, soil, glass and sometimes on bark.
645 Xanthosoma sagittifolium authorized Arrowleaf elephant ear (EN)||Xanthosoma sagittifolium, the arrowleaf elephant ear or arrowleaf elephant's ear, is a species of tropical flowering plant in the genus Xanthosoma, which produces an edible, starchy tuber.
907 Xanthosoma violaceum Schott unknown see Xanthosoma sagittifolium
934 Young Tissue Extract from incubated hen's eggs food_supplement There is a history of consumption of hen's egg powder produced from pre-embryonic incubated eggs in food supplements the EU before 15 May 1997. Therefore Young Tissue Extract egg powder derived from incubated hen's eggs are considered not novel in food supplements.
673 Zea mays authorized Maíz (ES), Maissi (FI), Mais (DE, NO), Maize, Indian corn, corn (EN), Milho (PT), Carevica (BG), Majs (DK, SE), Maïs (FR, NL), Calaboci, aravositos (GR), Maís (IS), Granturco, frumentone, formentone, melica (IT), Milho, milhão (PT), Kukurydza (PL), Maiz (ES)||The request concerns the use of the styles of Zea mays as food. Maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) known in many English-speaking countries as corn or mielie/mealie, is a grain domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times. It belongs to the family Poaceae. The leafy stalk produces ears which contain seeds called kernels. Though technically a grain, maize kernels are used in cooking as a vegetable or starch. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are usually grown for human consumption, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed and as chemical feedstocks. Maize stems superficially resemble bamboo canes and the internodes can reach 44.5 centimetres (17.5 in). Maize has a distinct growth form; the lower leaves being like broad flags, generally 50–100 centimetres long and 5–10 centimetres wide (2–4 ft by 2–4 in); the stems are erect, conventionally 2–3 metres (7–10 ft) in height, with many nodes, casting off flag-leaves at every node. Under these leaves and close to the stem grow the ears. They grow about 3 millimetres a day. Maize and cornmeal (ground dried maize) constitute a staple food in many regions of the world. For example maize meal is made into a thick porridge in many cultures: from the polenta of Italy, the angu of Brazil, the mămăligă of Romania, to cornmeal mush in the U.S. (and hominy grits in the South) or the food called mealie pap in South Africa and sadza, nshima and ugali in other parts of Africa. Maize meal is also used as a replacement for wheat flour, to make cornbread and other baked products. Masa (cornmeal treated with lime water) is the main ingredient for tortillas, atole and many other dishes of Mexican food. Maize is a major source of starch. Cornstarch (maize flour) is a major ingredient in home cooking and in many industrialized food products. Maize is also a major source of cooking oil (corn oil) and of maize gluten.
916 Zeolite forbidden volcanic rock, volcanic sand; Cleanolina, Vulkansand, Clinoptilolith (DE), ziemia wulkaniczna (PL),||Zeolites refer to a group of silicate minerals that share a similar chemical composition, mineral associations and geologic occurrences. Chemically, zeolites are similar to clay minerals. Natural zeolites, such as Clinoptilolite, occur in a number of distinct geologic environments and often have impurities which make them less useful for some specialized industrial applications. Thus, synthetic zeolites are often created instead. There are approximately 50 naturally-occurring and 150 synthetic zeolites.
325 Zerumbet speciosum unknown see Alpinia speciosa
858 Zizania aquatica authorized DK: Canadisk Vildris, EN: Wild rice, NL: Wilde rijst, FI: Intiaaniriisi, FR: Riz d’eau, riz du Canada, folle avoine, riz sauvage, DE: Wildreis, Nordamerikanischer Wasserreis, GR: Agrio rizi, IS: Villihrísgrjón, IT: Riso selvatico, NO: Villris, PT: Arroz-de-água, PL: Ryz wodny indianski, ES: Arroz indígena, SE: Indianris||The information available (EuroFIR-NETTOX Plant List) concerns the use of fruits (achene) of Zizania aquatica. Wild rice (also called Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats) is four species of grasses forming the genus Zizania, and the grain which can be harvested from them. The grain was historically gathered and eaten in both North America and China. Wild rice is not directly related to Asian rice (Oryza sativa), whose wild progenitors are O. rufipogon and O. nivara, although they are close cousins, sharing the tribe Oryzeae. The plants grow in shallow water in small lakes and slow-flowing streams; often, only the flowering head of wild rice rises above the water. The grain is eaten by dabbling ducks and other aquatic wildlife, as well as humans. One of the three species of wild rice native to North America is Z. aquatica. It belongs to the plant family Poaceae (Gramineae) and it is an annual plant that grows in the Saint Lawrence River and on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States.
1020 Zizania palustris authorized EN: Wildrice, ES: Arroz salvaje||Zizania palustris belongs to the Poaceae family. It is not considered a novel food
326 Ziziphus jujuba authorized Common jujube, Chinese date, Chinese jujube (EN), Jujubeboom (NL), Jujubier commun, Jujube, jujubier (FR), Glozyna pospolita, daktyl chiński (PL), Kiinanjujuba (FI), Jujube, Chinesische Dattel, Brustbeere (DE), Harilik kreektürn (ET), čínská datle (CZ), Azufaifo, yuyubo (ES), Zsidótövis (HU), τζίτζιφα (EL), Almindelig jujube (DK), Navadni čičimak (SL), Kinesisk jujuber, jujuber (SE), Ziziphus vulgaris, Ziziphus zizyphus, Hinap (BG), Açufeifa menor, jujuba (PT), Zizyphia, conapia (GR), Giuggiolo selvatico, loto di lotophagi, zizzolo, dattero Cinese (IT), Kinajujube, kinesiske dadler (NO)||The fruit (originates from a drupe) of Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube, chinese date) has been used as food in the EU before 15 May 1997. The fruit is known as jujube (Rhamnacaea Family) and originated in China where they have been cultivated for more than 4000 years. The plants travelled beyond Asia centuries ago and today are grown in Russia, Northern Africa, Southern Europe, the Middle East and the south-western United States.
859 Ziziphus vulgaris unknown see Ziziphus jujuba
327 Ziziphus zizyphus unknown see Ziziphus jujuba